A. marina is an evergreen tree belongs to Acanthaceae family. Avicennia marina subsp. orange, Nov to Dec or Jan to Mar. Grey and White Mangroves Grow around the coast from northern Australia to South Australia. Vierh.) 2015. Avicennia marina seedling within Silvofishery pond Rini Budi Hastuti and Endah Dwi Hastuti-This content was downloaded from IP address 157.55.39.237 on 01/10/2019 at 18:25. Cookies help us deliver our services. Hassler, M. 2018. No. Accepted : WCSP: 2012-03-23: Avicennia marina … marina Altona Coastal Park Kororoit Creek.jpg 1,412 × 1,000; 1.23 MB. Vierh. It is functional in soothing banks of estuaries in salty water for it contains tannin in the bark wherein it is used for preparation of brown dye. Avicenniaceae) Distribution: Coastal New South Wales along estuarine environments. Regulatory process names 2 Other identifiers 1 . Richard Morris. with help from Inter-tidal zone of muddy or … Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. CAS no. Avicennia marina (Avicenniaceae) is a species of mangrove tree used for treatment of small pox lesions in Persian folk medicine. The gray mangrove [ Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Papers overview. Free and Open Access to Biodiversity Data. CAS no. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. Subject. Globally, there are eight species of Avicennia with five species (A. alba, A. integra, A. marina, A. officinalis & A. rumphiana) in East Africa and Indo-Pacific, and three species (A. bicolor, A. germinans & A. schaueriana) in the New World She has both in terms of longitude and the latitude the widest distribution of all mangrove species. Yi X-X, Chen Y, Xie W-P, Xu M-B, Chen Y-N, Gao C-H, Huang R-M. Four New Jacaranone Analogs from the Fruits of a Beibu Gulf Mangrove Avicennia marina. Pages in category "Avicennia marina" This category contains only the following page. Regarding the timber useage, Burkill quotes Foxworthy, "altogether it a very unsatisfactory wood—the least useful of the mangrove-swamp woods—and the tree is usually considered as a weed in the swamps." It plays a significant role in supporting the coastal ecosystem and holds unique potential for studying molecular mechanisms underlying ecological adaptation. anomala Moldenke Avicennia marina var. australasica is the world's southernmost mangrove, being reported from the south-eastern tip of Australia near Melbourne, and from New Zealand near Auckland. The bark is greenish-grey, mottled and … To. Individu pionnier de l'espèce Avicennia marina dans le lagon de Batticaloa, au Sri Lanka. Hydrobiologia. non Linn. Creix amb múltiples branques, la seva escorça és llisa i de color gris clar. Avicennia marina f. angustata Moldenke Avicennia marina f. intermedia (Griff.) Another variety, Avicennia marina var. Avicennia marina var. resinifera (G.Forst.) Vierh. Avicennia marina is a mangrove species in the genus Avicennia, which occurs from the east coast of Africa to Asia and Australia to Fiji. Vierh. Avicennia marina is a widely distributed mangrove species that thrives in high-salinity habitats. We used the abundance of 18 O isotope in stem water to assess: (1) the extent of fresh water utilization by Avicennia marina (Forssk.) It is the only mangrove species able to withstand the cooler climates of South Australia and Victoria. Comments have to be approved before they are shown here. Introduction to Avicennia marina: scientific and common names, protected status (red lists, regulations), biological status in France, historical and contemporary. List of various diseases cured by Avicennia Officinalis. Avicennia marina typically dominates pioneering mangrove communities with more unstable sediments, whereas Rhizophora spp. Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. Bakh. is a historic plant, well-known for many centuries in traditional and folk use medicine. Avicennia marina, commonly known as grey mangrove or white mangrove, is a species of mangrove tree classified in the plant family Acanthaceae (formerly in the Verbenaceae or Avicenniceae). Mol. Moldenke Avicennia marina subsp. Broader (1) Avicennia. The species produces numerous erect pencil-like pneumatophores with lenticels. Any further distribution of this work … Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Avicennia Officinalis. It is a mangrove tree which can thrive in both high salinity … Name Status Confi­dence level Source Date supplied; Avicennia marina (Forssk.) È˜RC4ög k2h¨¡µ©.Ć&¤›"ñJð%9eÛê9Ù$Ø>´•W4Ÿ;š©ÔÃΙ‹ä»Ïu¶lî’å Unripe fruits are poulticed onto wounds and leaves onto skin ailments (List and … Avicennia marina, ext. A multipurpose tree, it is harvested from the wild for use as an insect repellent, dye plant, source of tannins, timber etc. Morphophysiological traits include rates of photosynthesis and transpiration, leaf morphology, and leaf pigment content. Keywords: Avicenni marina L, Avicennia officinalis L,Fruit, Antioxidant activity INTRODUCTION . Avicennia marina , commonly known as grey mangrove or white mangrove , is a species of mangrove tree classified in the plant family Acanthaceae (formerly in the Verbenaceae or Avicenniaceae). It has multiple upper epidermis with thick horny membranes and hypodermis. acutissima Stapf & Moldenke; Avicennia officinalis auct. Avicennia marina (Forssk.) It has multiple upper epidermis with thick horny membranes and hypodermis. Avicennia marina. Mol. Vierh across hydrological settings; and (2) whether growth, measured as increments in stem circumference, is sensitive to variation in rainfall availability. 14 plant name records match your search criteria Avicennia marina. Species of Avicennia occur wo… Endemic family. According to Lewis and Elvin-Lewis (1977), the tree possesses a bitter aromatic juice, used as an abortive in tropical Africa and Asia. Avicennia marina (grey mangrove) belongs to the Avicenniaceae family. Vierh.] Like many mangroves it is termites free thereby, the hard yellow brown wood used for making vessels. Ajna Fern Family. However, it has been used in a variety of ways, mainly as posts and flooring. arabica Walp. In HSC; Community W (321.0 ha) Predominantly on quaternary alluvium of the Hawkesbury River and larger tributaries in HSC. 1 Content from this work may be used under the terms of the CreativeCommonsAttribution 3.0 licence. Vierh. Keywords: phytochemicals / Traditional uses / Avicennia Marina / Therapeutic Activities / Plants-based research gaps / Curative power of the plant. Shrub, rarely attaining the size of a small tree, 1-3 (–5) m tall with pale branches. Common Name: Grey Mangrove. The traits of gray mangrove ( Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Use of leaves, stem and pneumatophore of Avicennia marina in the control the root infecting fungi viz., Fusarium spp., Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani on mash bean and okra plants was observed. Uses Information on Avicennia species is confused, due to the difficulty, historically at any rate, of distinguishing the species. A bird in Muthupet.JPG 2,288 × 1,712; 793 KB. Conclusions: Avicennia marina (AM) was identified as a potential candi date for the treatment of AGA based on its 5α-R1-inhibitory activity. australasica is the world's southernmost mangrove, being reported from the south-eastern tip of Australia near Melbourne, and from New Zealand near Auckland. Avic marin 070728 023 … Highly Cited. Common Name: Grey Mangrove. The database and code is licensed under a It was suggested that this is because Aboriginal diet was culturally determined and when Aborigines migrated into new areas they … The traits of gray mangrove ( Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Avicennia marina … Avicennia is a genus of flowering plants currently placed in the bear's breeches family, Acanthaceae. Get alerts for new papers matching your research; Find out the … Avicenniaceae) Distribution: Coastal New South Wales along estuarine environments. Avicennia tomentosa var. Brief Profile REACH registered substance factsheets C&L Inventory Biocidal active substance factsheets PACT tool Regulatory Obligations . The plant is the most widespread mangrove in the tropical and subtropical regions of Indo-West-Pacific area. : 294-918-0. Avicennia marina var. 1 Content from this work may be used under the terms of the CreativeCommonsAttribution 3.0 licence. Akad. The antiviral activity of methanol, ethanol, water, chloroform and n-hexane extracts was evaluated against HIV-1 and HSV. at different levels of soil salinity were assessed at three sites along the Tubli Bay coastline of Bahrain. The wood is commonly used as fuel and for construction, and the leaves can be fed to cattle as fodder. Help Regulatory context. How Avicennia Officinalis is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. A. marina is an evergreen tree belongs to Acanthaceae family. Ken Fern, Follow. typically dominate areas with more stable sediments. The results showed that the leaf of A. marina is bifacial leaf. As with other mangroves, it occurs in the intertidal zones of estuarine areas. In the past, it was an important source of fuel as … Aeg.-Arab. Formula: Help Key datasets. Avicennia marina Name Synonyms Avicennia alba var. No. Avicennia marina, commonly known as grey mangrove or white mangrove, is a species of mangrove tree classified in the plant family Acanthaceae (formerly in the Verbenaceae or Avicenniaceae). Cette plante de mangrove est notamment présente en Nouvelle-Calédonie [1]. Botany and Uses Avicennia marina (Forssk.) It is native to Pacific Basin excluding Hawaii. Avicennia marina (Gray Mangrove) is a species of tree in the family Acanthaceae. Here you … alba (Blume) Bakh. Pneumatophores 10-20 (—25) cm long. Regulatory process names 2 Other identifiers 1 . marina Avicennia marina var. Root and bark are used as aphrodisiac, the wood for snakebite, the aqueous extract of the seed for sores. Ethnopharmacological relevance. 1. See "Status", "Confidence level", "Source" for definitions. This species was collected by Banks and Solander at Cooktown in 1770. Formula: Help Key datasets. MANGROVES 5: Use by Aborigines (Mangrove as larder) Mangroves are a potential larder (Michael Michie) ... , Avicennia marina). Related topics. Sceura marina Forssk. web interface by Methanol extract had the highest antiviral activity and the most polar fraction … Avicennia marina seedling within Silvofishery pond Rini Budi Hastuti and Endah Dwi Hastuti-This content was downloaded from IP address 157.55.39.237 on 01/10/2019 at 18:25. Avicennia marina is the most widely distributed species of mangrove in Australia, mainly due to its tolerance of cool conditions. Avicennia marina, és una espècie d'arbre manglar classificada científicament dins la família Acanthaceae (anteriorment dins les Verbenaceae o les Avicenniaceae). It contains mangrove trees, which occur in the intertidal zones of estuarine areas and are characterized by its "pencil roots", which are aerial roots. The results showed that the leaf of A. marina is bifacial leaf. In northern Australia it is commonly found on the seaward edge of the mangroves, … EC / List no. Mangroves are not a taxonomically unified group, but rather an ecological group that arose through convergent evolution and includes several … ;o¹Y4€_&»dµ½[5['À‘dÝì¹áû» uˆ‡Ióc5‡Õܸv. The leaf of Avicennia marina was anatomized by paraffin method to observe its structures. Authority. : 91771-27-6. If you have any useful information about this plant, please leave a comment. Les fulles són gruixudes de 5 a 8 cm de llargada. It grows as a shrub or tree to a height of three to ten meters, or up to 14 meters in tropical regions, growing in the saline intertidal zone of sheltered coast lines. It is distributed along the east coast of Africa, throughout south and south-east Asia, and into Australia. Avicennia marina.World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World (2019). Avicennia is a genus of flowering plants currently placed in the bear's breeches family, Acanthaceae.It contains mangrove trees, which occur in the intertidal zones of estuarine areas and are characterized by its "pencil roots", which are aerial roots.It is commonly known as api api, which in the Malay language means "fires", a reference to the fact that fireflies often congregate on these trees. Avic marin 070728 020 mank.jpg 500 × 691; 247 KB. Structural class. It is the most common and widespread mangrove found along the mainland coast of Australia. Vierh.) Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Morphophysiological traits include rates of photosynthesis and transpiration, leaf morphology, and leaf pigment content. at different levels of soil salinity were assessed at three sites along the Tubli Bay coastline of Bahrain. Names of Avicennia Officinalis in various languages of the world are also given. 2014 … Related topics 1 relation. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Avicennia (family Acanthaceae). Wiss., Wien. References []. It presents remarkable levels of geographic variation both in phenotypic traits and habitat, often occupying extreme environments at the edges of its distribution. This species is widespread and common throughout its range. Com les altres espècies del gènere Avicennia té l'arrel aèria les The present study reveals the potential of fruit extracts of Avicennia marina L and Avicennia officinalis L with antioxidant principles. : 294-918-0. Apart from a limited use in stabilising the shores of tropical estuaries, this tree is essentially totally unsuited to cultivation. Characteristic of all the species are respiratory avicennia roots which protrude at … is a historic plant, well-known for many centuries in traditional and folk use medicine. 2015. Avicennia marina is one species used for building coastal ecosystem stabilization in Surabaya shores because of its tolerance to high salinity level and resistance to wave energy . of the family Avicenniaceae is a mangrove tree that can grow more than 10 m in height (Aksornkoae et al., 1992; Kitamura et al., 1997; Giesen et al., 2007). Applications Commercial/Practical Though the wood of black mangrove is hard, it cracks easily. Scientific Name: Avicennia marina Arabic Name: Qurm قرم IUCN Red List Endangered Status: Least Concern. Math.-Naturwiss. Avicennia marina (Avicenniaceae) is a species of mangrove tree used for treatment of small pox lesions in Persian folk medicine. Useful Tropical Plants Database 2014 by Avicennia marina typically dominates pioneering mangrove communities with more unstable sediments, whereas Rhizophora spp. Conclusions: Avicennia marina (AM) was identified as a potential candi date for the treatment of AGA based on its 5α-R1-inhibitory activity. If you would like to support this site, please consider, Cultivated plant at Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London. Scifeed alert for new publications Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher. The antiviral activity of methanol, ethanol, water, chloroform and n-hexane extracts was evaluated against HIV-1 and HSV. Dicotyledonous Trees & Shrubs. Fl. Gray Mangrove has simple, broad leaves. Avicennia marina est un arbre de la famille des Verbenaceae, ou des Acanthaceae selon la classification phylogénétique. This process is common knowledge to many coastal groups, but is unknown to people from Groote Eylandt and Kalumburu, for example. The grey mangrove (Avicennia marina) is named after Avicenna or Ibn Sina (AD 980-1037), one of the most significant Islamic philosopher-scientists. Marine Drugs. List of various diseases cured by Avicennia Officinalis. Individuals can grow to 7.3 m. Kl. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. NVS code Help. Message The user has shared this species from India Biodiversity Portal with you. As with other mangroves, it occurs in the intertidal zones of estuarine areas. Derivation of Name: Avicennia: Avicenna, 10th century Arabian philosopher and physician … In continuing your browsing of this site, you accept the use of cookies to offer you suitable content and services and realize visits statistics. Vierh. In HSC; Community W (321.0 ha) Predominantly on quaternary alluvium of the Hawkesbury River and larger tributaries in HSC. Avicennia marina … The fruit is used as an insect repellent, and the salt exuded from the leaves is … eucalyptifolia Avicennia marina subsp. The results can also be downloaded as a CSV file (Unicode UTF-8 encoding). The results are below. 137. Keywords: phytochemicals / Traditional uses / Avicennia Marina / Therapeutic Activities / Plants-based research gaps / Curative power of the plant. : 91771-27-6. Names of Avicennia Officinalis in various languages of the world are also given. 61:435 (1907) Conservation Code: Not threatened Naturalised Status: Native to Western Australia Name Status: Current Brief Description Amanda Spooner, Friday 3 September 1999. is the most widely distributed mangrove species, ranging throughout the Indo-West Pacific. How Avicennia Officinalis is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. The plant is the most widespread mangrove in the tropical and subtropical regions of Indo-West-Pacific area. latifolia Moldenke Avicennia balanophora Stapf & Moldenke ex Moldenke Avicennia mindanaense Elmer Avicennia sphaerocarpa Stapf Avicennia sphaerocarpa Stapf ex Ridl. The aim of this research was to determine the ability of herbal green tea extract from white mangrove ( Avicennia marina ) leaves to decrease blood glucose level of diabetic Wistar rats ( Rattus novergicus ). Avicennia marina - Grey Mangrove Family: Acanthaceae (prev. There are many salt-secreting glandular hairs on the lower epidermis, and many layers of … Avicennia plants have a number of ethnobotanical applications. Avicennia germinans, Black Mangrove 2 they stabilize sediments and protect the shoreline from erosion. Avicennia marina Accepted Name Gray Mangrove Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Lamiales > Acanthaceae > Avicennia > Avicennia marina. Gray Mangrove form mangrove s. It is a photoautotroph. australasica (Walp.) Keywords: Androgenic alopecia, 5α-reductase inhibitory activity, Human hair dermal papilla cell-based assay, Anti-androgenic activity, Avicennia marina Background Androgenic … intermedia (Griff.) In this study, the methanolic heartwood extract of AM was evaluated for inhibitory activity against 5α-reductase (5α-R) [E.C.1.3.99.5], the enzyme responsible for the over-production of 5α … The bark is greenish-grey, mottled and peeling in patches. 71: 435 1907 . Another variety, Avicennia marina var. Avicennia marina - Grey Mangrove Family: Acanthaceae (prev. There are many salt-secreting glandular hairs on the lower epidermis, and many layers of palisade tissues which account for about 2/3 in the mesophyll tissues. J.Everett. Last update on 2019-06-13: Now containing 11906 plants. On the east coast it occurs as far south as Cromer Inlet in Victoria, while on the west coast it occurs down to Bunbury. Kaiserl. A previously reported draft genome of Avicennia marina (GenBank accesion: GCA_900003535.1) was used in the assembly pipeline, excluding scaffolds shorter than 1Kb since HiRise does not assemble them. It is commonly known as api api, which in the Malay language means "fires", a reference to the fact that firefliesoften congregate on these trees. Derivation of Name: Avicennia… Homonyms Avicennia marina Vierh. Trees growing in salt water in Mozambique, http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home, http://apps.kew.org/efloras/fz/intro.html, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. of the family Avicenniaceae is a mangrove tree that can grow more than 10 m in height (Aksornkoae et al., 1992; Kitamura et al., 1997; Giesen et al., 2007). 1775. Vascular – Native. Acanthaceae. typically dominate areas with more stable sediments. Known as: Mangroves, Grey, Mangrove, Grey, Avicennia marinas Expand National Institutes of Health Create Alert. It has a self-supporting growth form. Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Help Regulatory context. … Fruits of the white mangrove on the coast of Pemba Bay, northern Mozambique. Vierh. The species produces numerous erect pencil-like pneumatophores with lenticels. A. marina fa de 3 a 8 m d'alt o fins a 14 m en zones tropicals. Brief Profile REACH registered substance factsheets C&L Inventory Biocidal active substance factsheets PACT tool Regulatory Obligations . Leaves lanceolate to ovate-elliptic, coriaceous 3-8 cm long, 1.5-3.5 cm broad, very acute to … 2014 [accessed 2016 Feb 15];745(1):59–68. Avicennia marina (AM) exhibits various biological activities and has been traditionally used in Egypt to cure skin diseases. The leaf of Avicennia marina was anatomized by paraffin method to observe its structures. Share. Scifeed alert for new publications Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher. Highly Cited. No. The record derives from WCSP (data supplied on 2012-03-23) which reports it as an accepted name (record 18454) with original publication details: Denkschr. Endemic taxon. Avicennia marina (Forssk.) The three subspecies are shown: Avicennia marina subsp. The water use characteristics of two mangrove species, Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina, in salinities of 50, 250 and 500 mol m-3 NaCI and leaf-to-air vapour pressure differences of 6, 12 and 24 mbar were studied in relation to growth, carbon partitioning and salt balance. Grey mangrove occurs in intertidal zones on a range of soft muds to sandy soils. Flora category. australasica Avicennia marina subsp. EC / List no. Vierh. Since time immemorial man has been using plant extracts to protect himself against several … Avicennia marina var. Nomenclature and Classification > Taxon Record Name > Scientific Name. The net water use efficiency in A. corniculatum declined with increasing salinity and decreasing humidity. Bakh. Semantic Scholar uses AI to extract papers important to this topic. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Avicennia Officinalis. Avicennia marina; Media in category "Avicennia marina" The following 86 files are in this category, out of 86 total. Results showed that the rates of … It is a fast growing and … Endemic genus. Mangroves are not a taxonomically unified group, but rather an ecological group that arose through convergent evolution and includes several different families. Anahtar Sözcükler:Avicennia marina, biyolojik kontrol, toprak ›slah›, Meloidogyne javanica, “mashbean”, bamya Meloidogyne induce major morphological and physiological changes within … Botany and Uses Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Apart from a limited use in stabilising the shores of tropical estuaries, this tree is essentially totally unsuited to cultivation. Avicennia marina is commercially used as fodder, fuelwood, construction materials and as medicine. The use of fresh and saline water sources by the mangrove Avicennia marina. Growth responses of the mangrove Avicennia marina … White Mangrove Denkschr.Kaiserl.Acad.Wiss.,Wien.Math.-Naturwiss.Kl. Avicennia marina, ext. Mangrove shrub or tree, 1.5-6(-16) m high. Secura marina Forssk., Fl. Brown wood used for treatment of small pox lesions in Persian folk medicine against and. Convergent evolution and includes several different families avicennia marina uses ( Forssk. new papers your! Distribution of all mangrove species that thrives in high-salinity habitats of … Nomenclature and Classification > Taxon Record Name Scientific. Semantic Scholar uses AI to extract papers important to this topic fuel as Avicennia! Three subspecies are shown here web interface by Ajna Fern with help from Morris., due to the Avicenniaceae family the plant is the most common widespread... Pioneering mangrove communities with more unstable sediments, whereas Rhizophora spp pencil-like pneumatophores with.. Avicennia marina accepted Name gray mangrove ( Avicennia marina … uses,,! Genus Avicennia ( family Acanthaceae ) the Vascular plants of the Hawkesbury River and larger tributaries in HSC Officinalis effective. Content was downloaded from IP address 157.55.39.237 on 01/10/2019 at 18:25 common its! And when Aborigines migrated into new areas they … Ethnopharmacological relevance please consider, Cultivated plant at Royal Botanic,! With help from Richard Morris of geographic variation both in terms of the mangroves, it occurs in the zones... Mangrove ( Avicennia marina typically dominates pioneering mangrove communities with more unstable sediments, whereas Rhizophora spp get alerts new... Branques, la seva escorça és llisa i de color gris clar water use efficiency in corniculatum... Can also be downloaded as a potential candi date for the treatment of AGA on. Avicennia species is widespread and common throughout its range species that thrives in high-salinity habitats construction and... Family: Acanthaceae ( prev water in Mozambique, http: //apps.kew.org/efloras/fz/intro.html, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike Unported! Cattle as fodder antiviral activity and the latitude the widest Distribution of all mangrove species that thrives in high-salinity.., water, chloroform and n-hexane extracts was evaluated against HIV-1 and HSV significant in... Est un arbre de la famille des Verbenaceae, ou des Acanthaceae selon la Classification.. In Egypt to cure skin diseases matching your research ; Find out the … the gray mangrove form mangrove it... At Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London seaward edge of the Hawkesbury River and larger tributaries in ;! Pact tool Regulatory Obligations root and bark are used as fodder for vessels!, you agree to our use of cookies 793 KB estuarine areas sphaerocarpa Stapf ex.. Creativecommonsattribution 3.0 licence category `` Avicennia marina ( Forssk. cracks easily typically dominates pioneering mangrove with. As aphrodisiac, the hard yellow brown wood used for treatment of small pox lesions Persian. Ecological group that arose through convergent evolution and includes several different families names of Avicennia wo…... Traits of gray mangrove form mangrove s. it is the most common and widespread in. And code is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License Though the wood for snakebite, aqueous. Against HIV-1 and HSV mangrove s. it is the accepted Name this Name is the most widely distributed mangrove that! Registered substance factsheets PACT tool Regulatory Obligations the bear 's breeches family, Acanthaceae the White mangrove the... Profile REACH registered substance factsheets PACT tool Regulatory Obligations, web interface by Ajna Fern with help from Richard..
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