This settlement initially covered only the more protected northeastern side of the hill (some 4–5 hectares), but over the 6th–4th centuries BCE expanded to cover its entire surface (c. 15 hectares). Despite that, the emirate outlived its rival and continued to flourish at the time of the Mongol invasion in 1239. Over the centuries the city changed hands often. The old Armenian Church, now used as a venue and Museum, Russian Orthodox Church of the Intercession, Putin visiting an exhibition dedicated to the 2000th anniversary of Derbent in the State Historical Museum, Почта России. The view of Derbent is great and the actual fortress itself is very well taken care of. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus. [40] For background see Russian conquest of the Caucasus#Caspian Coast. Derbent's Jewry suffered during the wars in the 18th century. 564. He conquered the city of Derbend in 1437. Дербент. [15], "-Wėrōy-pahr: "The Gruzinian Guard" The old name of the fortress at Darband;..."[16], In Arabic texts the city was known as "Bāb al-Abwāb" (Arabic: بَاب ٱلْأَبْوَاب‎, lit. Built in the 6th century during the reign of Persian emperor Khosrow I and maintained by various later Arab, Turkish and Persian regimes, the fortifications comprise three distinct elements: the citadel of Naryn-Kala at Derbent, the twi… The Persian name for the city came into use at the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century AD, when the city was re-established by Kavadh I of the Sassanid dynasty of Persia, but Derbent was probably already in the Sasanian sphere of influence as a result of the victory over the Parthians and the conquest of Caucasian Albania by Shapur I, the second shah of the Sassanid Persians. The fortress in Derbent guarded the Caspian Gates -- the only way through the wall. Закона №106 от 30 декабря 2013 г. [1] As a municipal division, the City of Derbent is incorporated as Derbent Urban Okrug. of the U.S.S.R.) I, Moscow, 1977. After the Russian conquest, many Jews of rural Dagestan fled to Derbent, which became the spiritual center of the Mountain Jews. Derbent (Russian: Дербе́нт; Persian: دربند‎; Lezgian: Кьвевар, Цал; Azerbaijani: Dərbənd; Avar: Дербенд), formerly romanized as Derbend,[8] is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea. The Derbent Fortifications is one the most popular tourist attractions in the city of Derbent and the Republic of Dagestan. [14] The modern name is a Persian word (دربند Darband) meaning "gateway", which came into use in the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century AD, when the city was re-established by Kavadh I of the Sassanid dynasty of Persia,[22] however, Derbent was probably already into the Sasanian sphere of influence as a result of the victory over the Parthians and the conquest of Caucasian Albania by Shapur I, the second shah of the Sassanid Persians. In the 19th century, the city passed from Iranian into Russian hands by the Treaty of Gulistan of 1813.[12]. [1] In the late 4th century CE, Albania passed under Sasanian influence and control; in the 5th century, it was a Sasanian border fortress and the seat of a march-warden (marzban).[1]. Опубликован: "Дагестанская правда", №81, 12 апреля 2002 г. Народное Собрание Республики Дагестан. Derbent occupies the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian Steppe to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Народное Собрание Республики Дагестан. The location is central (modern Cinema is next door - there is a "russian" KFC and burger restaurant). During the Khazars' reign, they played an important part in the life of the city. Out of the window next to the reception desk (3rd floor) you have a great view of the castle. Derbent played an important role in the development of the Silk Roads; it was located on the Caspian trail, which was of strategic importance, connecting the Europe and Western Asia. Derbent (Russian: Дербе́нт; Azerbaijani: Dərbənd; Lezgian: Кьвевар; Avar: Дербенд), formerly romanized as Derbend, is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea, north of the Azerbaijani border. Ibrahim I revived Shirvan's fortunes, and through his cunning politics managed to continue without paying tribute. Russia. It owes its rich history to its strategic position, along the travel route between Europe and the Middle East, on the border of Europe and Asia, where the mountains of the Caucasus almost arrive at the coast leaving a narrow 3-km strip of plain. Крепость Нарын-кала. Derbent's star attraction is the sprawling hilltop Naryn-Kala Citadel complex, which boasts impressive, powerful stone towers and walls. A large portion of the walls and several watchtowers still remain in reasonable shape. Дагестан. The only other practicable crossing of the Caucasus ridge was over the Darial Gorge. In the 10th century, with the collapse of the Arab Caliphate, Derbent became the capital of an emirate. Similar Sassanian defensive fortifications there—massive forts, garrison towns, long walls—also run from the sea to the mountains. Idem and A. R. Shikhsaidov, “Derbend-name (k istorii izucheniya)” (Darband-nāma. It is the southernmost city in Russia, and it is the second-most important city of Dagestan. They transformed it into an important administrative center and introduced Islam to the area. AC worked well. Nadir Shah of Persia forced many Jews to adopt Islam. The wall in Dagistan Russia also known as Derbent on the coast of the Caspian sea, it is a border fortress between two walls stretching from the mountains to the sea. Derbent can claim to be the oldest occupied city in Russia, and it is the southernmost Russian city, lying only 50 km (31 miles) from the border with Azerbaijan. Architectural Complex Citadel Naryn-Kala: 5000 years of history - See 108 traveler reviews, 455 candid photos, and great deals for Derbent, Russia, at Tripadvisor. It is the southernmost city in Russia, and it is the second-most important city of Dagestan. This is an incredible site over 15 centuries old, set right btw the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mtns. [14] Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. Derbent claims to be one of the oldest cities in the world and the southernmost one of the Russian Federation. [25] The chronicler Movses Kaghankatvatsi wrote about "the wondrous walls, for whose construction the Persian kings exhausted our country, recruiting architects and collecting building materials with a view of constructing a great edifice stretching between the Caucasus Mountains and the Great Eastern Sea." The main attraction - the fortress complex of Derbent. Architectural Complex Citadel Naryn-Kala: The witness of great history - See 104 traveler reviews, 452 candid photos, and great deals for Derbent, Russia, at Tripadvisor. [26] This account seems to be corroborated by the Spanish Arab Ḥamīd Moḥammad Ḡarnāṭī, who reported in 1130 that Derbent was populated by many ethnic groups, including a large Persian-speaking population.[28]. [5], The main ethnic groups are (2002 Census):[43][44]. On the history of research),” in Vostochnye istochniki po istorii Dagestana (Eastern sources on the history of Dāḡestān), Makhachkala, 1980, pp. Movses Kagankatvatsi left a graphic description of the sack of Derbent by the hordes of Tong Yabghu of the Western Turkic Khaganate in 627. ... Derbent. [24] Some say that the level of the Caspian was formerly higher and that the lowering of the water level opened an invasion route that had to be fortified. [14] In the 5th century Derbent also functioned as a border fortress and the seat of a Sassanid marzban. The bed was comfy. [1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the City of Derbent—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. Derbent is located in Russia’s Dagestan region, on the western coast of the Caspian Sea. Derbent has a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk). Today, Derbent is an outstanding monument of defense architecture. ), In the 1886 population counting of the Dagestan Oblast of Russia's Caucasus Viceroyalty, of the 15,265 inhabitants Derbent had, 8,994 (58,9%) were of Iranian descent (Russian: персы) thus comprising an absolute majority in the town.[41]. [18] A similar name, also meaning "Iron Gate", was used by Turkic peoples, in the form of "Demirkapi".[19][20]. Tradition also connects it to the Great Wall of … Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent, Historic Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings, Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Surroundings, Traditional Persian residential architecture, Traditional water sources of Persian antiquity, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Derbent&oldid=989635831, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from EB9, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Articles with Armenian-language sources (hy), Infobox mapframe without OSM relation ID on Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with image map1 but not image map, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles containing Lezgian-language text, Articles containing Azerbaijani-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2010, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Think Again, Moscow Says, People's Assembly of the Republic of Dagestan, Derbent - Russia's oldest city: 5,000 and counting. Historical attractions include the baths, the cisterns, the old cemeteries, the caravanserai, the 18th-century Khan's mausoleum, as well as several mosques. The Sassanids had also brought Armenians from Syunik to help protect the pass from invaders; as Arab rule weakened in the region at the end of the ninth century, the Armenians living there were able to establish a kingdom, which lasted until the early years of the thirteenth century. Excavations on the eastern side of the Caspian Sea, opposite to Derbent, revealed the Great Wall of Gorgan, the eastern counterpart to the wall and fortifications of Derbent. In the middle of the 20th century, Jews constituted about a third of the population of Derbent. [30][31] The Holy Saviour Armenian Church still rises up in the skyline, though it is used as the Museum of Carpet, Arts and Crafts today due to the decline in the Armenian population. The town has a sea port, and a railway station on the line Makhachkala - Baku. 'The Gate') or as "Bāb al-Hadid" (Arabic: بَاب ٱلْحَدِيد‎, lit. It is clear that the most important thing in Derbent is the fortress, well preserved, although rebuilt many times. Dagestan. View of Derbent city from the fortress wall (Dagestan, Russia A mosque. The educational infrastructure includes a university as well as several technical schools. The Soviet novelist Yury Krymov named a fictional motor tanker after the city in his book The Tanker "Derbent". [1], From the 4th century BCE, the settlement began to expand beyond the hill fortress, which became a citadel to an expanding city. (The city of Kūmīs of five towers Aži Dahag made it his own harem. Historically, this position allowed the rulers of Derbent to control land traffic between the Eurasian Steppe and the Middle East. This page was last edited on 20 November 2020, at 03:36. That's according to the city's acting mayor Rustambek Pirmagomedov, who has pointed the finger at the federal government for neglecting Derbent's fortifications, in what he called a "big emergency for the city.". [14], The 20-meter-high (66 ft) walls with thirty north-looking towers are believed to belong to the time of Kavadh's son, Khosrau I, who also directed the construction of Derbent's fortress.[23]. Том 1", http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/bul_dr/mun_obr2018.rar, https://web.archive.org/web/20180726010024/http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/bul_dr/mun_obr2018.rar, "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек", "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров", Derbent - Russia’s oldest city: 5,000 and counting, "Derbent as Russia's Oldest City? In 2002, there were 2,000 Jews with an active synagogue and community center. Derbent's location on a narrow, three-kilometer strip of land in the North Caucasus between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains is strategic in the entire Caucasus region. The impression of antiquity evoked by these fortifications led many Arab historians to connect them with Khosrow I and to include them among the seven wonders of the world. And a mosque again. Media in category "Derbent wall" The following 10 files are in this category, out of 10 total. Derbent is renown for its citadel (“Naryn-Kala” or “Dagh Bary” in Persian) and its imposing walls that date from the 6th century CE. During the reign of Khosrow I the fortress was built. The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. 'Gate of Gates')[17] simply as "al-Bāb" (Arabic: ٱلْبَاب‎, lit. Derbent wall‎ (10 F) Media in category "Derbent Fortress" The following 164 files are in this category, out of 164 total. The fortification complex was made a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003. The Fortifications of Derbent (also transcribed as Darband) are one of the fortified defense lines built by the Persian Sasanian Empire to protect the eastern passage of the Caucasus Mountains (the "Caspian Gates") against the attacks of the nomadic peoples of the Pontic–Caspian steppe. On the cultural front, there is a Lezgin drama theater (named after S. Stalsky). The Derbenid dynasty, being a cadet dynasty of Shirvan, inherited the throne of Shirvan in the 15th century. The first mention of Jews in Derbent in modern times is by a German traveler, Adam Olearius, in the 17th century. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. As mentioned by the Encyclopedia Iranica, ancient Iranian language elements were absorbed into the everyday speech of the population of Dagestan and Derbent especially during the Sassanian era, and many remain current. Map of the Sasanian fortifications at Derbent, by Roderich von Erckert, The citadel of Naryn-Kala and the walls of Derbent, Section of the "mountain wall" of Dagh-Bary, Background and first fortifications at Derbent, Creation of the Sasanian fortification complex, BBC: Dagestan gunmen kill one at south Russia fortress, UNESCO: Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fortifications_of_Derbent&oldid=989635833, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 November 2020, at 03:36. The region is named after the ancient Iranian-speaking tribes of the Massagetae people, who inhabited this region from around the 1st century AD to the 7th century AD. Dagestan was always divided into numerous historical and geographical areas: Avaria, Agul, Akusha-Dargo, Andia, Auch, Dido, Kaitag, Kumykia, Lakia, Lekiya, Salataviya, Rutulia, Tabasaran and others.
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