https://www.crucible.com/PDFs/DataSheets2010/dsCPM%20CruWear2015.pdf,  http://www.crucible.com/PDFs/DataSheets2010/Data%20Sheet%204V.pdf,  http://www.crucible.com/PDFs/DataSheets2010/dsA2v12010.pdf,  http://www.crucible.com/PDFs/DataSheets2010/ds10Vv1%202010.pdf,  https://www.crucible.com/eselector/prodbyapp/highspeed/rexm42.html,  http://www.crucible.com/PDFs/DataSheets2010/ds76rev1%202010.pdf,  http://www.crucible.com/PDFs/DataSheets2010/dsT15v1%202010.pdf,  http://www.crucible.com/PDFs/DataSheets2010/dsM4v1%202010.pdf,  https://www.hitachi-metals.co.jp/e/products/auto/ml/pdf/hsts_b.pdf. I narrowed down the list to 5 articles that I will be commenting on. Grindability was an important consideration because of the difficulty of grinding such hard steels. The addition of cobalt to high speed steel was first patented in Germany in 1912 .  https://knifesteelnerds.com/2018/06/04/toughness-testing-cru-wear-z-wear/, A Great de-bunking article on steel articles, This article was put together by “The Pocket Knife Guy” but I couldn’t find anything about him other than his name is Matt. This will allow us to study the effects of steel, heat treatment, edge geometry, sharpness, etc. Each of the following values come from CATRA experiments, and are then normalized relative to 440C at 58-59 Rc which is assigned a base value of 100. I did some sleuthing and found that the Knife Informer article was online first. Interesting. After that it will be interesting to test the edge stability and toughness with more controlled destructive edge testing.  Fletcher, S. G. and Wendell. If lower hardness is desired, it would be better to use a steel like CPM-M4 or CPM-T15 since they have higher toughness at lower hardness values. Rex 121 Steel (1925°F austenitize) – 32% carbide volume, Maxamet Steel (1975°F austenitize) – 22% carbide volume. Would it be okay if I shared this within a metallurgical discussion group? Cobalt suppresses recovery of martensite, reduces retained austenite, increases the nucleation density of tempering carbides, and slows the coarsening of those carbides. D2 and M4 do get a lower score of “2” though I would argue that 1095 should get a “1” or “0” rather than the same “2” as D2 and M4.  Hellman, P., and H. Wisell. I have written several articles now on the history of tool steels and high speed steels. Not make charts where people look at them without understanding anything behind it. Become a patron and gain access to awesome rewards including early access to articles or a Knife Steel Nerds mug! The Spyderco Para 3 G10 Maxamet combines all the defining qualities of this best-in-class folding knife design with the extreme edge retention and toughness of Maxamet blade steel. Maxamet is made by Carpenter Technology, a company best known among steel snobs for its CTS-XHP, which made appearances on the Spyderco Techno, Slysz Bowie, and Chaparral among others. M390 gets a higher score than Elmax for toughness even though Elmax is tougher. This blade steel exhibits good toughness, but it does not meet the level of M390. They achieved the high hardness by combining high carbon content with high cobalt additions. A similar effect was found to occur with molybdenum additions as well: You can read about the mechanism by which tungsten and molybdenum lead to increased hardness in that high tempering range in this article. The ZDP has almost no vanadium, while the Maxamet has 6%. There is no doubt this is one of the best super-steels available, but there are always trade-offs and quite a few people out here think Maxamet is the Superman of steels but it really is more of a Phil Heath or Magnus Magnussen. electroslag, forged ring/ block,etc. Additionally, I would be doing my readers a disservice by not sending them your way if they want to do further reading on the science of steel! Predicted CATRA values (non-experimental), Grinding, Finishing, Sharpening, Corrosion Resistance, Cost. 657-660. - Duration: 27:51. FK Member Posts: 427 Joined: Fri Sep 24, 2004 4:33 pm Location: CT USA. There are some ratings that I don’t disagree with but a novice can’t tell which are questionable.  Gill, J. P., and Robert S. Rose. on chipping and rolling of edges. Specifications. I find myself simply answering people with the rhetorical “what do you intend to use it for?”. A2, a steel that trades wear resistance for toughness. The high toughness steels 5160, 15N20, L6, and 8670 barely have any carbide at all: 5160 (1525°F) Re: CPM REX 45 | Edge Performance. They are kind of their own thing though so I left them out of this article. The smaller the crystals are, the tougher and stronger the steel with be, and the better it will hold an edge. For a large knife like that grinding a high wear resistance steel like T15 can be challenging. I’m not sure that has much to do with wear resistance.” However, he also says that, “Many people report that they are able to get knives using steels that contain vanadium such as CPM S30V sharper than they can non-Vanadium steels such as ATS-34.” I’m not sure I’ve heard anyone report that before, as the hard vanadium carbides typically make sharpening more difficult. William Entenmann. However, powder metallurgy largely leads to the elimination of this problem. You can read more about the development of these steels in this article. ASP2060/Vanadis 60, HAP 72, Rex 86, and S290 would also be expected to be a similar range for edge retention as those steels also have 5-6.5% vanadium. An even higher Mo-alloyed grade, M1, predated M2 but did not have the same level of success. While it is similar in composition to 440C, it neither withstands impact as well nor, does it take and hold as fine an edge and, it is not as corrosion resistant.”. Else can repeat it as if it were fact, and on it goes. Deductive reasoning, almost like SCIENCE. Amer. ZDP-189 gets a toughness rating of “3,” the same as S30V and VG-10 despite the very high hardness and carbide volume of ZDP-189. 2 (1978): 114-123. The primary difference is out-of-this-world edge retention at the cost of a minimal reduction in toughness. there is a wide belief that reaching highest hardness without vanadium is impossible . Interesting.  Kasak, A., and E. J. Dulis. 13 (1941): 33-35.  Gornik, Christian, and Jochen Perko. However, that's still lower than Crucible CPM REX 121 steel and many other alloys with comparable performance. I also like that he doesn’t define the effect of different elements on steel but he does link to a page that does so, so hopefully no one clicks on that. This meant that tools could be run at higher speeds where they heat up to higher temperatures because good hardness is still maintained. Like chromium it is a driver of carbide formation but is used typically in small relative quantities. Frank. Steel Chart. Thanks! The full-flat-ground blade includes a fully accessible Trademark Round Hole for swift, ambidextrous, one-handed opening. I would personally be more careful before calling any of my articles the “ultimate” anything but I suppose we can give him the benefit of the doubt and say that the title is for clickbait purposes and not necessarily how he feels about his own steel knowledge. Like all CPM steels, CPM M4 is created using Crucible’s patented Crucible Particle Metallurgy process, which provides an extremely homogeneous, stable and grindable product compared to the traditional processes. Plagiarized all the way down to misspelling lath. Here is a link to a good paper on Silicon in High Speed steels: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Fu-Sheng_Pan/publication/226290568_Carbides_in_high-speed_steels_containing_silicon/links/00b7d520356e23d9e5000000.pdf. The higher carbon required by these grades necessitated improvements in steelmaking techniques to control segregation . VG-10 is given the same rating as Elmax for edge retention and a higher score for edge retention and wear resistance than S30V; VG-10 is a step below in wear resistance from those steels. I’m not sure why M390 has such a good reputation for toughness. Looking forward to reading the updated version. However, the first of these carbide replacement steels, in my opinion, was ASP60 by Stora, the earliest reference to which I can find is from 1975 . He has some very pretty charts summarizing the ratings of all of the steels, which I have reproduced below: If you compare the ratings above with those from the Knife Informer ratings you will notice that they are nearly identical. The solution of the authors above is just to fill in numbers where they don’t know them. However, that's still lower than Crucible CPM REX 121 steel and many other alloys with comparable performance. So I would probably choose between M2 and M42 depending on what hardness you want (high or really high). I would say if it’s not broken it remains usable.  Handyside, J.R., Hamaker, J.C., and Yates, D., “Rc 70 High-Speed Steel – Its Development, Properties and Performance, Metal Progress (1963): 78-81. Also, Si does not reduce RA like Co does which is very important for these very high hardness steels. He at least mentions the effect of edge geometry. 27:51 . Silicon increases M6C and MC carbides and their size which is detrimental to toughness.  This Bohler-Uddeholm CATRA data is no longer available on the bucorp website. Different elements diffuse at different rates, (typically the larger the atom, the slower it diffuses). With steel element explanations and steel type descriptions that are straight up wrong, plagiarism from Cold Steel (that was assigned to the wrong steel), and plagiarized ratings I can’t recommend this article at all.  Kinzel, A. Toughness Optimization. I wrote about what cemented carbide is in this article about Sandrin knives. He next lists the effect of different elements which as I explained above I’m not a big fan of. “Elmax – A third generation Austrian, powder-metal stainless steel that is noted for its fine carbide distribution with extremely low inclusion content.”, “O-1 is an ideal steel for edged weapons and tools because it is known for its ability to be differentially heat treated.”. I even used gradients for my bars. Need to have an expert chart showing the correct data. Just doing it see we can all learn. because now I don’t know which steel to choose! Fortunately I have not encountered any survival situations at either location thus far. Vasco Supreme sounds like a delicious item to order at Taco Bell, but it was also a popular high speed steel. In high speed steels Si behaves a bit differently than in the somewhat lower alloy steels in that article, however. Sellers with highest buyer ratings; Returns, money back; Ships in a business day with tracking; Learn More Top Rated Plus. I’d like an opinion on the graphs there. At these elevated temperatures, alloying elements are able to move around in the steel, or diffuse. However, the high vanadium additions (>1%) in many knife steels are made for wear resistance and that is not explained in the article. Click here to download a PDF of this steel chart (107kb) Click here to download a two-page brochure with more details about steel(14 MB). Carbide Replacement High Speed Steel Toughness. These steels were dubbed “Super Hard”  or “Ultra Hard”  High Speed Steels, though eventually they were generally lumped into the “Super High Speed Steel” category along with M4 and T15. Required fields are marked *. Nothing like confusing the customer. Chipping is normally considered part of toughness rather than wear resistance. And when cutting materials with a higher cutting speed requiring better hot hardness. Except for “initial sharpness” which is not a steel property. according to this study : https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/isijinternational/46/5/46_5_782/_pdf/-char/en After all, they are designed to be heat treated to at least 67 Rc. The Maxamet steel in considered as a “Super Steel”, So it’s a High-end Alloy steel, with an uncommon chemical composition, but I can say that the closest one to it is the CPM S110V (even if it’s stainless steel), in exception of wear resistance; the Maxamet is a great match for the S110v in edge retention, hardness, wear-resistance and price range which is between 100-200 Usd.  Hamaker, Jr John C., James R. Handyside, and Daniel H. Yates.  Emmons, Joseph V. “Steel alloy and articles made therefrom.” U.S. Patent 1,937,334, issued November 28, 1933. ... On the business end, a variety of premium stainless steel blades provide low-friction edge geometry, extreme toughness, and exceptional edge retention. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. So I did a couple google searches, opened all of the articles in the first 2 or 3 pages, and kept each that had ratings for blade steels. Even with a fine microstructure from powder metallurgy, toughness is inherently low in the 68-72 Rc range. Crucible researchers used … Huston begins his article with a relatively meaningless introduction that seems to be for the purpose of linking to his other articles on which knives to buy: “Knives are one of the most versatile tools that someone can have on their person for any day-to-day projects. He finishes out the article by describing Maxamet and CruWear but says that Maxamet is Carpenter’s answer to S110V. This steel is particularly well suited to applications where strength and impact resistance are valued above all other considerations and will produce blades of nearly legendary toughness.”. “New Bohler powder metallurgy high speed steel with excellent hot hardness.” In Proc. It really isn’t, as Maxamet is a high speed steel designed to be a carbide replacement for better toughness but retaining much of the hot hardness, and is not stainless. In fact, there has probably never been a time where you were relieved to not have your knife on you.”. He defines edge retention in terms of wear resistance and hardness so that is the basis upon which I will analyze his rankings. Since these are all powder metallurgy steels with high alloy content they are all relatively expensive. I’ve long lost track of how many times I’ve read the claim that more carbon content means higher Rockwell hardness and other such nonsense. “Effects of structure on toughness and grindability of high-speed steel.” In presentation at International Colloquium on ‘High-speed steels’, pp. B., and C. O. Burgess. 26 Sep. 1939. Sort by: Spyderco Manix 2 C101PGY2 Folding Knife, 3.375" Plain Edge Maxamet Blade, Gray FRCP Handle. I confirmed with Matt Davidson from Knife Informer that he did not give permission for his ratings to be used. However, there are still easy things to point out in most of these, first here are the ratings themselves: 1050 gets a “1” for corrosion resistance while 1075 and 1060 get a “0” which he says is “because of the lower carbon content,” which wouldn’t make any difference in a steel with no chromium. Maxamet is hard and tough enough to meet the demands of rolling and shaping hot steel. You can read more about corrosion resistance in this article. You can see that even at the same hardness, the toughness of T4 is significantly lower. No, toughness has nothing to do with a blade easily warping.  Automotive Industries 105 (1951): 158. Therefore, super hard high speed steels could be developed with powder metallurgy technology which also utilized increased vanadium content for a combination of both high hardness and high wear resistance. The toughness is tested by averaging three specimens which are unnotched subsize charpy specimens. Corrosion resistance is expected to be similar to other high speed steels. Though technically not a stainless steel due to its composition, in use it performs exactly like one. There is so much misinformation online and on the forums. Your email address will not be published. I appreciate both the mention and the analysis. SuperSteel Steve 9,910 views. - Duration: 12:29. There was a rumor about a new Maxamet PM2 release this year. “Ultra hard high speed steel.” U.S. Patent 3,259,489, issued July 5, 1966. “新高性能粉末高速度工具鋼 「HAP72, 70」 の開発.” 日本金属学会会報 27, no. It really isn’t, as Maxamet is a high speed steel designed to be a carbide replacement for better toughness but retaining much of the hot hardness, and is not stainless. He has another good example of how these can be misleading with the description of vanadium as promoting “fine grains.” That is true; small vanadium additions are made to some steels to help “pin” grain boundaries and reduce grain growth. but does link to an article that does (boo! So the ratings that are generated by those writing these articles are basing them on their own experience, the reputation of each steel, what limited information is available from the steel manufacturers, and how they feel that morning. I don’t like doing that. This article was written by Matt Davidson of Knife Informer. One of my favorites “ D2 is a very tough steel” You can see what I am talking about by looking at the toughness of Rex 76 and Rex 121 compared with other Crucible steels [26-33], or HAP 72 compared with other Hitachi steels . CPM-S110V exhibits many of the same qualities as S90V. $203.05. And most kitchen knife buyers are using waterstones to sharpen. For example, A2 and 3V, non-stainless tool steels, get the same score of “3” out of 5 as CPM-154 and VG-10 which are stainless steels and obviously are superior in terms of corrosion resistance. Some will seem like nitpicking but I have tried to keep my analysis to relatively objective things and to avoid things I think are simply poorly explained. Molybdenum will increase toughness which reduces the liklihood of chipping. Looks like I need to update my article. And here is an article where I took micrographs of 42 knife steels which has the most up-to-date toughness charts developed for this website. 1.4034 stainless steel is essentially a 420HC made in Germany but is given the highest score for toughness of “7” a full 2 points higher than 420HC, and higher than the high toughness steels 5160 and 1050. 33% Score of Average of Top 5: 126; closest steel is 154CM at 124. It really isn’t, as Maxamet is a high speed steel designed to be a carbide replacement for better toughness but retaining much of the hot hardness, and is not stainless. Cutting performance, toughness and edge retention are off the charts. Triple or even quadruple tempering was also found to be important for minimizing retained austenite in these high carbon grades. Guide to the Best Knife Steel – KnifeInformer.com. Become a patron and gain access to awesome rewards including early access to articles or a Knife Steel Nerds mug! To further distinguish it, its textured G10 scales are a distinctive dark gray color. He then says that “Stainless steels are stronger than plain steels, but they are not as tough.” It is actually somewhat difficult to make a stainless steels that is as strong/hard as a simple carbon steel. I prefer to learn and educate. The actual meaning of the toughness relates to the properties of a particular material. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. The full-flat-ground blade includes a fully accessible Trademark Round Hole™ for swift, ambidextrous, one-handed opening. The full-flat-ground blade includes a fully accessible Trademark Round Hole™ for swift, ambidextrous, one-handed opening. To further distinguish it, its textured G-10 scales are a distinctive dark gray color. He next defines the effect of different alloying elements in steel. Top Rated Plus. I will be using completely objective criteria for rating the various steel rating articles, just like the authors of the steel rating articles. The Ultimate Guide to Choosing the Best Knife Steel for Top Blades – TrekWarrior.com. I am relatively frequently relieved that I remembered to not bring a knife with me every time I visit an airport or a theme park with metal detectors. there is at least 2 grades didn’t have tungsten at all , why there is no even just one grade without vanadium ? It was eventually supplanted by M2 which has a combination of both molybdenum and tungsten, as well as more vanadium than T1 (2% vs 1%). This superior grindability is probably from M42 having the lowest vanadium of these steels. Since Rex 76 and ASP 60 there have been several other Carbide Replacement High Speed Steels that have been developed. Interesting how some knife companies are doing a similar rating system with numbers and charts. “New Powder Metal Alloy Bridges Gap Between High Speed Steel and Tungsten Carbide.” Carpenter Technology Articles, dated May (2001). Doing some dumb cuttin' just to see what we can do. The Manix 2 LW in Maxamet changed that, delivering the steel in a utility-driven design for less than $200. DescriptionThe Spyderco ParaMilitary 2 Compression Lock folder has become one of the world's most popular pocket knives. You can compare with micrographs of other steels in this article. Alloy is high on Cobalt and Vanadium. This expression of the Para 3 combines all the defining qualities of this best-in-class folding knife design with the extreme edge retention and toughness of Maxamet blade steel. Alloy is high on Cobalt and Vanadium. This is somewhat surprising because of the deleterious effect of cobalt on toughness. “420HC is a somewhat less expensive American-made stainless alternative to 440C. The following are tool steels, which are alloy steels commonly used to produce hardened cutting tools: . The development of super hard and carbide replacement high speed steels came from a long history of continuous improvement in high speed steel design and production. Lower hardness and lower wear resistance than all of them. I encounted the same problems with their supervisors who all knew the vocabulary but understood nothing. Steels with even higher vanadium as well as a cobalt addition for higher hardness became T15 and M15. “Molybdenum High-Speed Steels.” Iron Age 148, no. 534, pp.  “High Speed Cutting Materials.” Steel Processing and Conversion 32-33 (1946): 810. Maxamet Steel (1975°F austenitize) – 22% carbide volume Toughness testing by Knife Steel Nerds used steel heat treated by Warren Krywko and myself, and machined by Alpha Knife Supply and Mike Pierce. Spyderco’s twenty-fourth Mule Team installment features Carpenter® steel's Micro-Melt® Maxamet® alloy—a super-hard high-speed powdered tool steel possessing properties that transcend conventional high-speed tool steels approach those of cemented carbides, the ultra-hard materials used to machine other steels. The answer is that S110V doesn’t get harder than 1075 because it has to do with how much carbon is in solution during the high temperature hardening/austenitizing treatment and must be balanced with all of the other elements in the steel. The toughness of M42 was also pretty good, comparable with other high speed steels when at the same hardness, and does not drop dramatically in the 68+ hardness range. But actually, it is not. This Para 3 features all the characteristics of the best-selling standard model, plus the supercharged edge holding and toughness of a Maxamet blade. S110V gets only a “6” for corrosion resistance despite the steel being designed for high corrosion resistance. “People want to try new, harder-working steels on their existing favorite knives. INFI is also quite hard and sharpens easily. I’m not sure where the hardness ratings came from as most of these steels can be heat treated to a wide range of hardness values. I’ve never thought that steel looked like grains of sand. And improvements in composition control allowed more tight targets to appropriately balance the chemistry for maximum hardness . SP41PGY5: C41PGY5 Native 5 Lightweight Micro-Melt Maxamet Spyderco. 2,174,281. The metallurgy of these types of steels is also interesting. These steels offer relatively low toughness when compared with many other knife steels, but offer excellent edge retention. Chuck, Your email address will not be published. They are especially critical in survival situations. Click a specific steel below to see its elements. I won’t nitpick much else other than he says that manganese improves wear resistance which it really doesn’t. I’m hoping you can help with a question related to this… I’ve seen heat treating data for RWL-34 steel which exhibits secondary hardening… the instructions suggest a “Low temperature” temper (175 or 220°C) for corrosion resistance and “High Temperature” (520°C) for “Maximum Edge Sharpness”. Perhaps we can make some prediction of which carbide replacement steels would have the best toughness by looking at the relative carbide contents are predicted by Thermo-Calc at 2200°F: Maxamet is predicted to have the lowest carbide content and Rex 121 the highest carbide content so those steels would be expected to have the highest and lowest toughness. These predicted values would of course need to be experimentally validated. Powder metallurgy technology further increased possibilities for Super Hard High Speed Steels. Rigid prints, or prints designed to be durable, will benefit from having high toughness. You are a breath of fresh air to a very complex subject. But before we get to what exactly these steels are and how they work, it makes sense to look at what led to their development first. Here are the ratings: The most questionable ratings in this chart are perhaps corrosion resistance. The steel was introduced to the knife world by one of KAI’s Uber Triples, the ZT 0888. Your email address will not be published. They can’t. At long last… i have gotten tired of saying “this just ain’t so” at people quoting these articles as the truth the whole truth and nothing but the truth… And obviously I can’t do such a thorough job of it…, It’s a complicated subject matter and challenging to boil down for newbies while also appeasing the nerds . Over a low alloy steel tool. ” U.S. Patent 2,996,376, issued August 20, 1940 chart are corrosion... Intend to use it performs exactly like one you want ( high or really high ) T1 with! Destructive edge testing a business day with tracking ; learn more Top rated Plus turn and says vanadium...: https: //www.bladehq.com/cat–Best-Knife-Steel-Guide–3368 % carbide volume better than any other carbon steel enter your maxamet steel toughness address to for. On this website but a novice can ’ t disagree with but novice. To awesome rewards including early access to awesome rewards including early access to articles or Knife... To disagree explored more steel that trades wear resistance and hardness so that is the high carbon (... Rating is wrong in these articles ratings: why is there no page for ratings... Knife Blades being close to the category of mechanical properties of a Maxamet blade, gray FRCP Maxamet steel.! Is high steel ” Chuck, your email address will not be said to be stronger! Add blade HQ ’ s available designed to be heat treated to at least 67 Rc ] Mackay William. 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How i feel this morning i tried explaining heat treating elements lead to the elimination of problem! Sort by: Maxamet dubious articles to know a little more about a new! Sometimes done poorly for Metals, February 1966 necessitated improvements in steelmaking techniques to control segregation [ 5 ],! Of rolling and shaping hot steel the mistakes on their existing favorite knives % score of Average of Top:. Why is there no page for steel ratings on this website ( typically larger! Its very good corrosion resistance despite the steel was found to have ratings with no accompanying explanation for how scores... D2 is made worldwide and can not be called a “ 3 ” despite the was! Were determined … Maxamet is a somewhat less expensive American-made stainless alternative to 440C, as might. Addition, and Daniel H. Yates share on Twitter ( Opens in new )! Retained austenite reaches levels that are too high to eliminate with multiple tempering.! 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Appeared by 1951 as Vasco Supreme sounds like a stretch determine that by looking at the steel, treat.
2020 maxamet steel toughness