It will be shown that Boodin’s work underwent a development from a more or less direct form of pragmatism to a certain variant of realism, which Boodin himself called “functional” realism. ch. But the major purpose of the paper is obviously to establish functional realism as an autonomous position. This becomes particularly clear from Lovejoy’s contribution to the 1920 essay volume. These latter conditions should be conceived of as – energetically definable – “truth-makers,” which in James’s theory wouldn’t find any place because of their being postulated as existing previous to verification. Pragmatism is based on four things: possibility, probability, feasibility and immediate effectiveness. ‘Grant an idea or belief to be true,’ it says, ‘what concrete difference will its being true make in anyone’s actual life? Holt, for example, claimed that “[t]he entities […] under study in logic, mathematics, and the physical sciences are not mental in any usual or proper meaning of the word ‘mental’” (Holt in Holt, 1910: 394). Rather, it is the driving force of natural processes and, as such, by all means knowable. It runs on all fours with the perfectly wise man, and with the absolutely complete experience.” (James 2017 : 82). I have met him repeatedly and have felt the sympathetic charm of his personality. Consequently, both idealism and materialism are, in his view, variants of “dogmatism” (ibid. 9 See, in this connection, already Lovejoy 1908; further, for an evaluation, Kuklick 2017. A Winter Revery.” It appeared in, had appeared in 1907. Critical realism is historically the successor to idealism. Peirce, for example, published many of his most important papers for The Monist. critical realism; pragmatism. But already two years earlier they had published “The Program and First Platform of Six Realists.” In this manifesto, they came along with a couple of – more or less general – realist theses. 35Now Boodin’s attitude in “Pragmatic Realism” was, as we have seen, non-metaphysical. Misak 2013). A certain form of, Ontologically, atoms, according to Boodin, have the status of energy centers: they must be conceived as “more or less stable dynamic clusters within dynamic systems” (, : 83). Consequently, both idealism and materialism are, in his view, variants of “dogmatism” (. Consequently, the Jamesian reduction of truth to verification turns out to be insufficient.17. In 1899, Boodin finished his dissertation on “The Concept of Time.”. Rather, things possess properties “only within a system, and such properties vary with the conditions which determine the system” (1916: 35). Moreover, classical pragmatism had shifted to so-called neo-pragmatism, especially with the appearance of C. I. Lewis’s Mind and the World Order in 1929 (cf. The, element primarily pertains to the dynamic aspect of energetically conceived reality. He writes: But after all, the center of interest in this religion is not the temple but the artists. The energy concept simply proves to be more general than the concept of matter. This becomes obvious from his rejection of Kantian “things-in-themselves” (cf. Positivism and constructivism are two very different philosophical stances; there is a difference between the core ideas behind each philosophy. Metaphysics is science, not art.” (1916: xxi). In its opening paragraph the following is clarified: “Prof. “Truth in science is what gives us the maximum possible sum of satisfaction, taste included, but consistency both with previous truth and with novel fact is always the most imperious claimant.” (. In 1896-97, he taught Logic, Ethics, and Comparative Religion at Brown. “Why,” he asks, “should a man’s soul be crowded into one system of philosophy?” (1908: 302). It should be noted that the very term “critical realism” was used by Sellars as early as 1908 (see Sellars 1908) and that he already in 1916 published a book explicitly titled, one by declaring that “the word ‘critical’ has no reference to the Kantian philosophy, which should not be allowed to monopolize that excellent adjective.” (Drake. “In it,” Sellars writes, “both pragmatism of a chastened sort and neo-realism of a less doctrinaire type may ultimately find the satisfaction of their insights.” (Ibid.). Background: Mixed methods approaches are now extensively employed in nursing and other health care research. In contrast to both idealism and materialism this kind of metaphysics is driven by criticism instead of dogmatism in terms of method. For further details, see Ostwald 1895 and the reconstruction in Neuber 2002. In A Realistic Universe he changes this sort of attitude in favor of what might be called a scientifically informed account of metaphysics. 42As a programmatic characterization, this diagnosis is false. “Why,” he asks, “should a man’s soul be crowded into one system of philosophy?” (1908: 302). Matter is applicable only within a limited field. Moreover, one might wonder how ‘functional’ realism is related to pragmatism. Boodin John Elof, (1909), “What Pragmatism Is and Is not,” Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods, 23, 627-35. It is these questions that I finally want to briefly address. The object, in other words, is dependent upon the cognitive moment not for its existence, but for its significance. true by events. . When this is accomplished, they drop out; and things are present to the agent in the most naïvely realistic fashion. See esp. Among Boodin’s fellow graduate students were the later influential realist philosophers Arthur O. Lovejoy, William Pepperell Montague, Edwin B. Holt, and Ralph Barton Perry. Accordingly, a fusion of pragmatism and realism seemed to be, among the younger Harvard generation. Also his seminal lecture series, from 1907 and especially his 1909 monograph, However, it was John Dewey who most firmly stressed the. His main target in “Functional Realism” is George Santayana’s. Yet it is important to emphasize that this does not imply a “relapse” to materialism. In fact, the actual problem is to understand why Boodin thinks his own approach needs to be so sharply distinguished from critical realism. According to Pihlström, Boodin was of the opinion “that his work and training on his home farm with intimate contact with nature may have made him an ‘empirical realist’” (Pihlström 2010: 6). Moreover, the little town housed around one hundred Swedish immigrants, which in turn helped Boodin to work for the Episcopal Church during the first few years. Section 4 discusses Boodin’s specific understanding, blending and eventual disentanglement of pragmatist and realist ideas. Be that as it may, the particularly realistic element in Boodin’s approach to pragmatism had obviously to do with his European, Swedish, roots. critical realism. At the same time he speaks of “my friend Royce” (1908: 303), mentions the latter’s “absolute idealism” (1908: 300) and suggests that “[i]deals may prove truer than facts”, . A Winter Revery,” The Monist, 18, 298-306. After a short time working in a “low vein” mine owned by the Quincy Coal Company, Boodin attended Augustana College in Rock Island, Illinois, in 1890-91 where he studied Latin, Greek, Swedish, and Geometry. , especially in the form advocated by Royce, was the prevailing point of view. On the other hand, he explicitly demarcates his position from “the movement sometimes called ‘the new realism’” (ibid.). Boodin 1916: 33). Boodin, although invited to do so (see below, fn. It was particularly Sellars who, in his Evolutionary Naturalism, insisted upon the interrelatedness of physical objects, perceiving organisms and their environment.21 Furthermore, the entire functional idea is obviously prefigured in Sellars’s writings. Dewey John, (1905), “The Realism of Pragmatism,” Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods, 2, 324-7. Even during his lifetime, Boodin had the impression that his philosophical contributions were not sufficiently appreciated. For a comprehensive account of Boodin’s life and work, see Nelson 1984 (on which I primarily draw here). The 'real' can not be observed and exists independent from human perceptions, theories, and constructions. At the same time he speaks of “my friend Royce” (1908: 303), mentions the latter’s “absolute idealism” (1908: 300) and suggests that “[i]deals may prove truer than facts” (ibid.). The Social Mind: Foundations of Social Philosophy. It is, by the way, quite difficult to determine what the distinctive characteristic of “European” pragmatism could be. Thus the weight of a body varies at different points of the surface of the earth; it is, in other words, a function of the attraction of the earth. Besides idealism, neo-realism, and pragmatism there existed a further influential movement, namely so-called critical realism. The concluding remarks of this paper are sufficiently explicit: “Personally, I have a decided liking for Professor James, and I am sure that in expressing it I voice the opinion of many. In 1893, he got a position as a lay reader in the Episcopal Church of St. Mark in Minneapolis, Minnesota, where he did parish work with other Swedish immigrants. Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870. Rather, things possess properties “only within a system, and such properties vary with the conditions which determine the system” (1916: 35). Thus in an article from 1905, titled “The Realism of Pragmatism,” Dewey points out: Speaking of the matter only for myself, the presuppositions and tendencies of pragmatism are distinctly realistic; not idealistic in any sense in which idealism connotes or is connoted by the theory of knowledge. However kind the new world has been and whatever my success within it, the loss of my own community has always haunted me. Qualitative research is often associated with interpretivism, but alternatives do exist. James inquired into Boodin’s background and plans, and nicknamed him “the orator.” He then went on to revise his paper in response to Boodin’s critique. As I understand this method it means simply to carry the scientific spirit into metaphysics. He obviously knew of Peirce’s 1905 contribution for. According to Pihlström, Boodin was of the opinion “that his work and training on his home farm with intimate contact with nature may have made him an ‘empirical realist’” (Pihlström 2010: 6). , as it was primarily established in the German-speaking area by thinkers such as Wilhelm Ostwald and Georg Helm. 1 For a comprehensive account of Boodin’s life and work, see Nelson 1984 (on which I primarily draw here). Moreover, his Harvard student fellows, such as Holt, Montague or Perry, attempted to interpret James’s account of pragmatism within a realistic framework.2 Accordingly, a fusion of pragmatism and realism seemed to be en vogue among the younger Harvard generation. Editorial Comment to Boodin, (1910), The Monist, 20, 614-5. (Ibid. Holt Edwin B., Marvin Walter T., Montague William P., Perry Ralph B., Pitkin Walter B. Boodin transferred his college studies to the University of Minnesota and made acquaintance with the work of William James. Holt, Montague and Perry all had studied under Royce at Harvard. It was a complete cleavage with my world before eighteen. Author retains copyright and grants the European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. As Sellars makes it clear in his Evolutionary Naturalism (1922), the critical realist “is very sympathetic with the position of the pragmatist, albeit he thinks that many pragmatists are too utilitarian and do not value enough, or sufficiently admit, a theoretical interest in knowledge” (Sellars 1922: 55-6). 38It is at this very point that, according to Boodin, pragmatism and realism coincide. 29Apparently, pragmatism stood in need of being defended (or at least of being clarified) against its opponents. It was he who encouraged the younger men in the field to break with tradition, to explore new possibilities and new horizons.” (Werkmeister 1949: 371). 11In a similar vein, American pragmatism had evolved as an anti-idealistic movement. At that time, Harvard no doubt was the stronghold of (the still quite young) American philosophy. And he had no money. Here at least the artist has the sense of doing something, for in the other temples there is nothing to do but contemplate that which is, whether beauty or desert. As concerns his primary sources of inspiration, he mentions James, Royce and “the vitalizing influence in our country of its great teacher, John Dewey, and the Chicago School” (1916: ix). It is not the province of metaphysics to dictate to reality what it must be, but to discover its fundamental meaning. I wish him all possible success and the honor of merited renown. In his opinion, “the doctrine commonly put forward as ‘pragmatism’ may be said to be a changeling, substituted almost in the cradle” (Lovejoy 1920: 80).9. For him. In his view, energy is to be conceived of as an “, ” (1916: 15). Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement, A digital resources portal for the humanities and social sciences, 4. Much the same is asserted by Boodin when we writes: In order to prevent misunderstandings let me emphasize that I do, claim that Boodin simply took over one of Sellars’s most prominent ideas. Accordingly, metaphysics “implies, and furnishes the inspirations of, the special sciences” (ibid.). 2John Elof Boodin was born in Pjätteryd, Småland (Southern Sweden), in 1869. Shook John R., (1998), Pragmatism: An Annotated Bibliography, 1898-1940, Amsterdam, Rodopi. The temple may never be finished, as each artist and each generation of artists modify the plans to suit their own ideals. Pihlström Sami, (2010), “Nordic Pragmatism,” European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy, 2 (1), 108-20. 14), did not contribute to that volume. Would Boodin have focused on Sellars’s account of critical realism, his critique, I maintain, would not have worked. Laying the focus on what is implied by a realistic – in contrast to an idealistic – point of view, he declares: It is clearly Royce’s version of idealism to which Boodin is alluding in the last two sentences of that passage. Rather, idealism was a multifaceted movement. , published in 1911, that Boodin directly replied to that comment. Online: [journals.openedition.org/ejpap/945]. However, one of his brothers had settled in Colchester some time before. A concern for fact or reality and rejection of the impractical and visionary, An artistic representation of reality as it is, (sciences) The viewpoint that an external reality exists independent of observation, (philosophy) A doctrine that universals are real—they exist and are distinct from the particulars that instantiate them. and that “[o]ur standards of measurement, whether of energy, time, or space, are all alike pragmatic” (ibid.). in 1937. Alluding to Einstein’s theory of relativity (without mentioning Einstein himself) Boodin points out that “[w]e know of no absolute position in space or absolute system of relations” (ibid.) Boodin John Elof, (1910), “Pragmatic Realism,” The Monist, 20, 602-14. He explicitly analogizes philosophy and. Key Difference – Pragmatism vs Idealism Pragmatism and idealism are two opposing philosophical approaches. Suzuki 1962). Robert J., (1983), “The Energetics Controversy in Late Nineteenth Century Germany: Helm, Ostwald, and Their Critics,” PhD diss., Yale University. Professor Boodin has not made use of the invitation, but prefers to offer to the readers of. Titled “Pragmatism Versus the Pragmatist,” Lovejoy’s paper may be considered as one of the most unrelenting critiques of the pragmatist point of view. Inspired by James’s “Does Consciousness Exist?” (1904), authors such as Holt, Montague, and Perry had joined forces, in order to promote what they called “new” realism. Yet it is important to emphasize that this does not imply a “relapse” to materialism. This paper juxtaposes critical realism with the influential tradition of pragmatism in . 15 of The Monist, published in 1909. They are centers of produced change. For a comprehensive account of Boodin’s life and work, see Nelson 1984 (on which I primarily draw h. John Elof Boodin was born in Pjätteryd, Småland (Southern Sweden), in 1869. (Editorial Comment to Boodin 1908: 306), 20As is well known, the Monist’s editor-in-chief, German-born Paul Carus, stood in close contact to the pragmatists. In Boodin’s words: The conception of energy has gradually supplanted the conception of matter as a universal ideal of description.