They burrow themselves into the mud and live upside down. They are classified as air breathing, but some consider it to be sensitive to pollution and an indicator of good water quality. Larvae hatch and after an unknown amount of time, crawl to land, dig underground, and pupate. Females normally lay eggs on sides of containers filled with water (i.e. Compared to nontreated mouse, CM administration increased ATP levels and antioxidative enzym… These organisms are broken up into three categories: organisms found in Indo-Pacific region only, organisms found in Atlantic region only, and organisms found everywhere. snails, spiders, and worms Do not have an internal skeleton Large enough to see with the naked eye V˚ ˝˚ ˙ Iˇ ˚ ˛˝˘ B ˘˛˜˝ M˚ ˆ˝˘ ˛ ˚˛ ˙ Conditions that impact the diversity and population density of benthic macroinvertebrates can be abiotic, biotic, and/or cultural. This is why the pouch snail is very tolerant to pollution. Eggs are laid individually or in rafts in the water, or in an area that will be flooded. Tolerance. High numbers are considered indicators of very poor water quality. The second type of snail, the lunged snails (pulmonata), takes air or sometimes water into an internal lung-like structure and absorbs the oxygen it contains. Omnivorous-Eat organic debris, such as plankton or diatoms. “Marine and Estuary” water quality topic has indicator organisms for the macroorganism list in the 2019-2020 and 2020-2021 seasons. Gilled snails, or prosobranchs, breathe with gills and possess a hard trapdoor-like operculum. Period 2 - crayfish, orb snail, pouch snail, planaria (flatworm), mayfly larva, water mite, caddisfly larva, midge larva. Also, backswimmers do not have scoop-like front legs like water boatman. After a few weeks of development, the young worms emerge and mature usually within a year. Environmental tolerance of invasive golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822)) and Thai native apple snails (Pila scutata, (Mousson, 1848)) However, blood midge larvae are slightly different. To help complete it please add a table with the following headings to each section:"Importance as Indicators", "Ecology", "Life Cycle", "Feeding Habits", and "Extra information". Their presence alone can indicate polluted water. Larvae live in the water and come to the surface to breathe. Highly Sensitive to Pollution . The dragonfly undergoes incomplete metamorphosis during its life cycle. Birds, mammals, and game fish eat them. Kingdom: Protista Phylum: Chlorophyta Name: Spirogyra General Feeding Group(s): Photosynthetic General Habitat(s): Freshwater areas Pollution Tolerance: High. Orb Snails, which do not spiral into a tip, are also counted as Left-handed snails. Tubifex feed on decaying organic matter, detritus, and vegetable matter. They are ambush predators, the top of the aquatic insect food chain. Mayflies prefer cleaner water, therefore their presence indicates clean water sources. 264 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<6E6902CB5EED48DDA895E40D8E2028D2><2FB8D92F98BE1A4F9E5C7F25F0379E58>]/Index[228 65]/Info 227 0 R/Length 156/Prev 951709/Root 229 0 R/Size 293/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream In late spring, larvae go to a drier spot and pupate. Horse flies are mostly between .5 and 1.25 inches. This tolerance will also be indicated in the data obtained from studies reported here. Native to Asia, Europe, and Africa. Complete Metamorphosis-Larvae are small, wormlike, and bulbous at one end. It's scientific name is planobarius corneus. Once it reaches adulthood, it can travel extremely fast. The banded coral shrimp removes/consumes rejected food particles from certain organisms with its 3 pairs of claws. Class 4-Pollution Tolerant Air Breathing Snail. Blocks sunlight from reaching native plants. Indicates slow moving water, such as streams, ponds, or lakes. 1516149 | Learning to See, Seeing to Learn A Sociotechnical System Supporting Taxonomic Identification Activities in Volunteer-Based Water Quality Biomonitoring Blood midge ecology is the same as midge ecology. After copulation, Tubifex produce egg-cases known as cocoons, which are stored around the clitellum, where the sperm and ova are stored. • Has shell that spirals with opening usually on your left side, or shell that is coiled in one plane, or shell that is dome or hat shaped with no coils. Other larger beetles and fish will eat whirligig beetles, which are predators to small organisms. Worm-like; flattened lengthwise and possess a sucker at each end; color is green, black, brown or grey, some with patterns of bright colors of yellow and red; length up to five inches. During spring and early summer, brownish-gray eggs are laid near water on aquatic plants and other objects in rows. Opening on left side of shell, brown, gray or black, often with algae growing on the shell; length is up to 1/2 inch. Both undergo complete metamorphosis. h��XYo�8�+�%�"�}(8�e�N��m���:j"�#��6��w�����t�� �"�4�|FM�n��D�ZG���FD+N�|��g�$RZI�: perch, small crustaceans). Adult females are one of the most common and disease-spreading pests in the world, as they feed on vertebrate blood. Nymphs go through five instars. Go through many molts, but there is little visible difference between them, Carnivorous- eat mostly invertebrates, some small fish or tadpoles, Also known as Nepidae. They are detritivores. It soon spread throughout the southeast. Finally, backswimmers' lower body surfaces are darker than their patterned backs. They are classified as air-breathing since they do not rely on underwater oxygen content. Spiral-shaped shell has an aperture (opening) on the left when pointed tip of shell is held upright; Orb Snails, which do not spiral into a tip, are also counted as Left-handed snails ... •We can evaluate our brook’s pollution level using the “Pollution Tolerance Index,” just as we did for the imaginary streams we practiced on last Monday. around aquatic vegetation and slowly moving water around the world.. this species is mainly a pest along the Atlantic and Pacific coastlines and the Mississippi River valley. Tubifex are commonly used for fish food and also eaten by bottom-feeding fish, insects, leeches, and crustaceans. Both larvae and adults are predators. Well, it has a little projection from it's foot called a pseudobranch. Larvae primarily feed on algae and other organic debris. The tentacles, which contain sting-ing cells, surround a mouth that is capable of swallowing large microcrus- taceans like copepods and waterfleas. lunged snail orb snail 50 mm 12 mm also, limpets . Adults can be food for bats, birds, and other insects. Group 3 - pollution tolerant Pouch Snails • Do not have a plate-like covering over the shell opening. Adult males feed on nectar and adult females infamously feed on blood of vertebrates. 228 0 obj <> endobj Also, horsefly wings are uniform, whereas deerfly wings are striped or patterned. They catch prey by lunging at them, trapping them with their front legs, and biting with their pincers. Several species do not eat in the adult phase of their life. Larvae hatch in ten days from eggs laid on plants. Molt several times before reaching their adult, winged stage. Adults inflict painful bites on warm-blooded animals. Pupae are inactive and look like commas or aliens with huge heads. :g4�Z� &���r-�rުEF������q��2N�#��$QL��" After a week or longer, they emerge as adults. Increase turbidity by pulling out the roots of plants, Eat plankton and the eggs of other animals. Tubifex are considered pollution-tolerant. Some are highly tolerant of water pollution. Eaten by wasps, hornets, dragonflies, and kills deer. Adults live only days to weeks. Females can produce a minimum of 10 offspring every two weeks. Incomplete Metamorphosis-Eggs are laid on water and sink to the bottom. When they become adults, they take flight and mate. Larvae are collector-filterers of algae, bacteria, fungi and protozoa. Mosquitoes are generally not a good water quality indicator, but their larvae are only found in stagnant water. Nymphs eat small insects, often cannibalizing. Eaten by birds, spiders, frogs, fish, and even larger aquatic insects. Adults resemble small mosquitoes. Didinium. Water striders are air breathing. The orb snail is a semi pollution tolerant macroinvertebrate. To maintain suspension in water, veligers develop cilia. Omnivorous-eat algae, other aquatic plants, and sometimes dead animals. Carnivorous, larva form attracted to light, female dobsonfly's bite is painful, Cannot tolerate pollution as they need oxygen rich water, Lay eggs in a jelly clump under rocks and leaves, may live 2-5 years, Only count live ones when monitoring water quality, Indicate much oxygen and fast-moving waters, Eaten by freshwater trout and some insects, Complete Metamorphosis-Eggs are laid on undersides of stones. Feeds on zooplankton such as Daphnia, and other smaller organisms. Plant with pink flowers and thread-like leaves. PTI 17-23 10-16 Pollution Tolerance Index (PTI) = Stream Quality Excellent Good Fair Poor Use the table to the left to figure out Stream Quality from your PTI total. Up to 1/2" Orb snails up to 2" Identification. They live in the water or in moist areas. They inhabit sediment in lakes, rivers, and sewer lines. Elongated white eggs are cemented to underwater plant stems that hatch after several weeks. Gilled snails are one of two main groups of aquatic snails in Missouri (the other group is the "lunged" snails). Males are the good parents. Nymphs have many molts before reaching adulthood. Two week CM administration significantly delayed fatigue phenomenon which is confirmed via rotating rod test, forced swimming test and forced running test. They release enzymes to liquefy the insides. 9 larval stages, eggs hatch after 16 days of laying. Some species are predatory. Horseflies have short antennae, and deerflies have long, uniform antennae. Spirogyra. Can be differentiated from damselflies by the fact that dragonflies leave wings perpendicular to body when at rest. Complete Metamorphosis- wormlike, thick, brownish larvae. Its uses were for medicine and for decoration. They are not counted in the PTI. Hermaphroditic-reproduce through penis fencing. \�IU���J��E&wU��mșP���r���&Iv��g�"+�N��=����!�-���ѕe�1ѫ�u���iGG�&���S��h� ��0��eQ�;x�iE ��2�q��O�<3Oo�� m�[�\f-�p\&�Ʃp�c�y\/R�)�� ���{]$.y��y� C{�߶�,�����z����H3�G� G�]i Horsefly larvae are moderately to very tolerant of pollution. Eggs are attached to aquatic vegetation as they are laid. Black Fly Crane Fly . Primarily a carnivore; eats invertebrates such as zooplankton along with the things cleaned off organisms. While tolerance levels can actually vary by species, and different species can have varying tolerances to specific pollutants, the levels given are generalized for the family of organism. Snails from mining polluted sites seemed to be preadapted to a low pH environment. Invasive to the state of Wisconsin. When there is no competition, they often live in large groups. Lunged (orb) Snail 1/8 to 1in Clams & Mussels 1/8 to 5in Crayfish ½ to 5 in Dobsonfly (Hellgramite) ¾ to 4 in Dragonfly ½ to 2 in Fishfly ¾ to 4 in Stonefly ½ to 1 ½ in Damselfly ½ to 2 in Crane Fly 1/3 to 2 ½ in Macroinvertebrates may be smaller or larger than the pictures. They eat by sucking out fluids and organs of their prey. It can breathe regular air because it has a lung. Carnivorous-immature Damselflies feed on daphnia, mosquito larvae, and other small aquatic organisms. %PDF-1.6 %���� Giant water bugs are found in clear, freshwater ponds and streams with slow-moving water. Adults are found near freshwater. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. It is absent from most of the great plains region. Males take care of them until hatching, periodically giving them air. They prefer clear water with aquatic vegetation. Although chemical tests are frequently used, they have limits that can be overcome with biological sampling. After weeks or months of feeding, they pupate, and then days later emerge as adults. 292 0 obj <>stream Aggressive biting of humans, vector of several viruses (i.e. Adults prey on any small animal they can catch, including insects, salamanders, tadpoles, and some small fish. Females feed on blood after mating. Males feed on nectar, sweet plant juices. Complete Metamorphosis-Larvae are very small, wormlike, and green, gold, brown, tan, or black. In the summer, nymphs go through five instars on their way to adults, seven to ten days each. Adults overwinter in mud at the bottom of pond and lake margins. It acts as a gill so that the orb snail can breathe under water. For the event, see the Water Quality page. Adults scavenge for floating materials on the surface. As adults, Water Penny Beetles live on land (or are "terrestrial"). After a few days, they become adults. If the groups are too dense, they will either fly away or cannibalize. Some females lay eggs on the back of males. When out of water, they fold themselves in half while wiggling; color varies from green, brown, gray, but usually black; length up to 1/3 inch. They are particularly active in daytime. Was reported to be found in pretty much every state except Florida. Larvae resemble encrustations on rock. They are generally found in slow-moving waters, though not always. Adults fly at night. Water striders are aquatic predators that feed mostly on insects and spiders that fall onto the water surface. They often rest on plants, or even in the benthic (deep) zone. Cordyceps militaris has been used extensively as a crude drug and a folk tonic food in East Asia due to its various pharmacological activities. Like other air-breathing macroinvertebrates, water boatmen have a wide range of pollution-tolerance. They are similar to adults but without wings at first. Indicate calcium and nutrient-rich water clear of sediments and pollution. Tubifex are hermaphroditic. Different species have different ways of supplying air. Indicate nutrient enriched conditions and poor water quality. Larvae are found in ponds, marshes, and the riparian zone of streams. Can be differentiated from dragonflies by the fact that damselflies leave wings parallel to body when at rest. Whirligig beetles undergo complete metamorphosis. The tolerance score, ranging from 0–10, represents the insect’s sensitivity to pollution and can be used to estimate the quality of the water in which the insect was found. The male form of the banded coral shrimp is larger than the female (sexual dimorphism). Fish and predaceous water insects eat them. They have sensitive antennae that feel vibrations in the water. Free-floating plants with purple flowers. Habitat for mosquitoes. Kingdom: … A Pollution Tolerance Index is a common way for stream ecologists to assess the health of a waterway through biological methods. They ingest large quantities of mud and then filter out organic debris and can also absorb molecules through their body walls. Additionally, the snails can move to the surface of the water to obtain oxygen for their lung. ----- temperatures than other pulmonate groups. Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Freshwaters-Taxa Tolerance Values, Metrics, and Protocols Mandaville, S.M. Not actually scorpions, Can cope with organic waste, indicating streams that are beginning to recover from sewage pollution, Consume dead and decaying material. Post-Veliger Stage: Predation on zoo-plankton, competition with native species (i.e. Adults will appear about July, though there are usually two generations in a year. They are most common in the Ozarks. To help students better understand tolerance levels 2. Most eggs hatch within forty-eight hours. Pollution tolerant ; Phylum. Water boatmen are usually primary consumers, but some are predatory. It isn't sensitive to pollution because it doesn't breath the oxygen through the water. They eat other aquatic insects. Backswimmers are often confused with water boatman, but they can be told apart because water boatmen swim right-side-up near the bottom whereas backswimmers swim upside-down near the surface. Backswimmers undergo five instars, each lasting between one and two weeks. Some birds and fish prey on water striders, but they aren't a favorite food. Backswimmers live in bodies of still water, or slower parts of streams and rivers. O Pouch Snail and Pond Snails (Gastropoda) a Other Snails (Gastropoda) Total Group Three Taxa. Larval stage lasts 5-10 days, and pupal stage lasts 2 days. Larvae are aggressive and eat everything up to small fish. Males have fuzzy antennae. Larvae are known as leatherjackets. Larvae do breathe underwater, so they need oxygen. A tolerance score is included for each insect in this publication. Helpful to reef health because it eats fast growing coral (slower growing can compete). Start studying Biology 1406 Lab Exam. This gives the Orb snail an additional way obtain oxygen. They live in the bottom of quiet, stagnant waters of lakes, ponds, and rivers. This lesson is an excellent introduction to the concept of pollution and how it affects macroinvertebrates and therefore determines water quality in freshwater lakes, streams, and creeks. Eaten by many vertebrates and invertebrates, Grow throughout entire lives, shedding exoskeletons often immature sowbugs look very similar to mature ones, the main difference being the size of the specimen, Omnivorous-Bottom feeder that consumes dead animal matter and decaying plants. They do compete for space and nutrients, since there can be huge numbers of blood midge larvae living together. Furthermore, backswimmers have a narrow segmented beak, but the water boatman has a blunt, non-segmented beak. Larvae are called wigglers, actively feeding in the water, siphoning organic matter floating around. Eggs can withstand cold temperatures, which is why they survive dormancy through the winter. The water strider sucks out the fluids from its prey. They are found in standing water of ponds and streams especially with muddy bottoms. Usually found in areas with little vegetation, Eggs are laid above the waterline in mud, decomposing plants, or stems of plants or rotting wood. At the end of the summer, the adult will emerge and return to the water, where it spends most of its time. It breathes out its back end, but sometimes carries a bubble underwater to breathe from. Egg Stage: Females produce 30,000-40,000 eggs at a time. Pollution Tolerant Benthic Macroinvertebrates By Hashim, Helaina,Chloe,Lexie,Kristen. Larvae of horseflies are predatory, eating other insects, and even small fish and amphibians. larvae settle on a hard surface an d morphs into a juvenile starfish. Crowds out native species. Orb snails are semi-tolerant to water pollution. Hellgrammites (dobsonfly larvae) consume aquatic insects. 8 Identification: Brown and radially symmetrical. Orb Snail Family: PLANORBIDAE Lunged (Pouch) Snail Family: PHYSIDAE Pollution Tolerant Pollution Tolerant . Open, clean water, sometimes found in pool bottoms, Carnivorous-bloodsucker, usually attacks fish or other animals, Indicate poor water quality and are tolerant of pollution. Omnivorous-Eat plants and debris, and occasionally small insects. Like other large beetles, predaceous diving beetles breathe with a bubble they dive down with, since they have spiracles at the end of the abdomen. The bite is quick, so the reaction of a human attempting to swat it isn't fast enough to catch the fleeing mosquito. Depletes population of zooplankton (keystone species), and the water flea population cannot be moderated by other fish, as spiny barbs on the flea make it inedible. Indicate running water of very poor quality. Pollution Intolerant (High Quality Group) Somewhat Pollution Tolerant (Middle Quality Group) Water Penny Beetle: Flat saucer-shaped body, 6 tiny legs and gills on underside, 4-6 mm. When found in high numbers, macroinvertebrates like adult riffle beetles and gilled snails can serve as bioindicators of good water quality. Complete Metamorphosis- Eggs are attached to submerged vegetation, worm-like, soft-bodied larvae enter pupae stage before becoming adults. In about two weeks, nymphs hatch. Eggs do not necessarily need to be laid in stagnant water, as larvae can develop in both still water and running water. Clam Mussel . Pollution Tag (10-30 minutes) Tolerance Game Instructions . endstream endobj 229 0 obj <>>> endobj 230 0 obj <> endobj 231 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 612.0 792.0]/Type/Page>> endobj 232 0 obj <>stream Eaten mainly by fish, birds, larger predatory aquatic insects, and web-building spiders. General Size. Sometimes known as sludge worms, Tubifex live in clusters on the bottom of ponds and streams. They have some natural defenses, because they have an additional projection from their foot called a pseudobranch that acts as a gill. Spiny Water Fleas are parthenogenetic, which means that it can interchange between being able to reproduce sexually and asexually. Females require blood for egg development, and obtain it by sucking it out of its host(s) with an elongated proboscis. Accidentally introduced into United States while importing Japanese tires. Indicate swift-flowing water and too many nutrients. This is the main vector of river blindness in humans. Deerflies are more wasp-like (skinny with small heads and wide wings). Eggs are laid either in water or on aquatic vegetation. Adults live for a very short time. They swim at the surface in groups with a complex social hierarchy. Ecological competition with the native species, responsible for clogged pipes and sewage, Attached to ships' ballasts, introduced into marine ecosystems. Indicate slow moving water, such as streams, ponds, or lakes. Planobarius corneus means the great ramshorn in latin.The great ramshorn is referring to the way the shell is shaped. Adults usually do not feed. Omnivorous-Eat algae, debris, and insect larvae. Different species indicate varying levels of pollution. Seven to forty eggs are laid in spring in small batches attached to underwater plant leaves. Indicate clean, oxygen rich, fast-moving bodies of water, Complete Metamorphosis- Eggs are laid underwater on plant material, Herbivorous-Eat plant material and diatoms. Omnivorous-Larvae feed on algae, plant material, and animals, sometimes building nets to catch food. Adults lay eggs on vegetation above the water surface. Life span is 4-5 years in native environment (Eurasia), in Great Lakes lives maximum of 3 years. When the pupa stage is done, usually in a few days, the mature adult emerges. They have four instars and live four to fourteen days. Also, damselflies are smaller than dragonflies. Importance as Indicators Ecology Life Cycle Feeding Habits Extra Information Picture (Shell) Indicate nutrient enriched conditions and poor water quality. The scientific name is Simulium sp. Instead, snails from populations that acclimated or evolved in the presence of heavy metal mining pollution were more robust to acidic conditions than were snails from reference habitats. Eggs are deposited underwater attached to solid objects in spring. This species was introduced into the St. John's river in Florida shortly after the Industrial and Cotton Exposition in 1884. Large numbers of whirligig beetles can indicate moderate water quality. � Larvae may occasionally eat mosquito larvae. h�b``d``�������� Ā B@16��� �� +#_-�Tj``H�u� Dobsonflies are only present in very clean environments because they are intolerant of pollution. Daphnia. Some larvae can survive in very poor-quality or acidic water. Macroinvertebrate Pollution-Tolerance Index " Exm0LE* Place a check mark next to each type of organism that is present at the site. Water striders generally live in freshwater habitats with a good food supply and many objects to put eggs on. tires, flowerpots, natural holes) and the eggs require rainfall to rise the water level and trigger the larvae to hatch. However, experts say that complete eradication of mosquitoes wouldn’t have major ecological consequences. A pouch snail is found in the bottom of the lake, but it is actually a lung breathing snail. It consists of a stalk that supports a crown of five to eight long tentacles . This list is incomplete. Giant water bugs are air-breathing. These creatures are usually highly sensitive to pollution. Male zebra mussels sense eggs in water and release sperm into water which fertilize the eggs. In summer, the larvae pupate above water on a plant. During mating season, water striders are territorial and sometimes eat each other. Veliger Stage: Larvae are referred to as veligers, and emerge from eggs a few hours after males fertilize eggs. Hurtful to reef health because infestations can cause major reef damage. Larvae eat small aquatic invertebrates. Caddisfly: 6 hooked legs on upper body, 2 hooks on end, may have stick, rock or leaf case, 2-40 mm in length. The following is a list of all of the macroorganisms that must be identified in the Macro-Flora and Fauna Section. Also commonly known as mosquito hawks, though adults usually do not eat mosquitoes. For the past 20 years, biologist Pete McIntyre has traveled to Africa’s Lake Tanganyika, Earth’s second-largest freshwater lake by volume, to study freshwater snails found nowhere else in the world. Stream Quality: Created Date : … Female adults are pests to warm-blooded animals, because they consume blood. Larvae clean up the environment. Uses toxins called astero. Releases chemicals and spawns. They ambush their prey and hold on with their front legs while they suck the juice out with their mouthparts. The tolerance levels are generally described as: tolerant of pollution; moderate (somewhat sensitive), or sensitive (intolerant of pollution). Accidentally introduced into waters through ballasts of ships. Grant No. Not territorial. Mosquitoes are found wherever there is standing water, or even moist soil. West Nile Virus, Yellow Fever, St. Louis encephalitis, dengue fever, etc.). Preyed upon by fish, birds, and some turtles. Adults release digestive enzymes and eat anything up to small fish. The dobsonfly does not eat in its mature form. 82 Other Organisms There is a possibility that you will discover insects and other organisms that are not listed on the Pollution Tolerance Index (e.g., adult dragonflies, water striders, water bugs). After hatching, larvae live for one to two years, with six to thirteen stages. Vernal and autumnal activity only, eggs remain dormant until proper season, and water temperature rises. Males live about a week, and females live longer. Our study aims to investigate the effect of Cordyceps militarisfruit body extract (CM) on antifatigue in mouse model. Crayfish Sowbug Scud Water Snipe Fly . h�bbd```b``���� �AD2�Hv/0�D���H�� ��X�;�d���`�����b R�D��3���E`]�����F�`�փHk0�XVL��L��e�����>&��J�620R�?��3� Ɔ� Gilled snail Lunged snail Orb Snail. An orb snail can breathe regular air and it can breathe underwater. These organisms tend to require highly dissolved oxygen levels. Its front legs feel for vibrations, then grab the insect, and puncture its body. Some eat other mosquito larvae. Water boatmen also feed on dead insect parts and detritus. Chemical, bacterial, and land use monitoring exist as well to provide more information on the health of a stream. Unlike other air-breathing indicators, water boatmen are herbivorous. Stages of Life Cycle: Egg Stage, Veliger Stage, Post-Veliger Stage, Settling Stage. Actual size ranges are listed. ����@�E`V��w�6G"b8��-v`�B�^:Nʤʊ�޴���Wg����6=Mdô��������b����{@ۼ�,�"���Q�����1��>��O�����)��w�~J������5���x�a�\( ��W,>4���9>�߹Pp�����d4I�I�^�c2��7s}S�\�t ���ʧ�����o�S�^�ٯ�W%UJ���+�A��x�}��ᛩ��̔w�T�����AAo���K�,�?�ܥy�Uχ�Sz�M����uW|Ki�i��0MXX�d����9��d��d�D���2��*�� �#H0z>J�'D��"�NN�_��L�)�$X����1=��v��n�0�f��OY�G��ǔ���N�\��� ���,�i��~�W�i5|�~2� kS��N���a+����^�>~!N�����2WEI�^Nդ��d���&��M�'`��/.