[53] Seeds germinate almost solely in bare soil, at temperatures between 10 °C and 40 °C. The seed is said to have arrived on the North American continent in the dirt used as ballast in old sailing vessels. (1) Twenty-four natural populations of the monocarpic perennial Verbascum thapsus were mapped and studied over 3 years. Edward G. Reekie, in Plant Resource Allocation, 1997. The common mullein (V. thapsus) grows 0.6 to 2 metres (2 to 7 feet) tall, has a single, unbranched stem with large, The family name of this European native may have derived from the word scrofula, a disease that is now understood to be a form of tuberculosis . Verbascum thapsus (great mullein or common mullein) is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia. [76] All preparations meant to be drunk have to be finely filtered to eliminate the irritating hairs. History has shown that Verbascum thapsus provides cough relief related to various . [63], Because it cannot compete with established plants, great mullein is no longer considered a serious agricultural weed and is easily crowded out in cultivation,[19] except in areas where vegetation is sparse to begin with, such as Californian semi-desertic areas of the eastern Sierra Nevada. [7] It grows best in dry, sandy or gravelly soils, although it can grow in a variety of habitats, including banksides, meadows, roadsides, forest clearings and pastures. European Unionherbal monograph on Verbascum thapsus L., V. densiflorum Bertol. Geographic subdivisions for Verbascum thapsus: CA-FP, n SNE, MP : MAP CONTROLS 1. Verbascum thapsus was used medicinally by some Native American tribes. JSTOR provides a digital archive of the print version of Journal of (2) Vegetative individuals colonize a disturbed site for only a few growing seasons after disturbance. of case studies. Thapsus was founded by the Phoenicians.It served as a waypoint on the trade routes between the Strait of Gibraltar and Phoenicia and as a market for the inland products of the area. It is met with throughout Britain (except in the extreme north of Scotland) and also in Ireland and the Channel Islands, on hedge-banks, by roadsides and on waste … [25][29], V. thapsus is known by a variety of names. Common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L. #3 VESTH) has an ancient relationship with man. 12:27 Fri 18th Sep 2020. tamborine. [69394] [72], Control of the plant, when desired, is best managed via mechanical means, such as hand pulling and hoeing, preferably followed by sowing of native plants. [27] In subsp. [2] The plant's leaves, in addition to the seeds, have been reported to contain rotenone, although quantities are unknown. There are three usually recognized subspecies: In all subspecies but the type, the lower stamens are also hairy. verbascum thapsus https:/ /en.wik ipedia. The record derives from WCSP (in review) (data supplied on 2012-03-26) which reports it as an accepted name with original publication details: Sp. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. Fasciculata (or sect. [2] Dioscorides first recommended the plant 2000 years ago, believing it useful as a folk medicine for pulmonary diseases. The journal does not publish papers Diese Pflanze wird schon seit langem in der pflanzlichen Heilkunde (Phytotherapie) angewendet. [79] It was also part of the National Formulary in the United States[75] and United Kingdom. History. Garrett, Kimball L., Raphael, Martin G. and Dixon, Rita D. (1996). Journal of Ecology. This item is part of JSTOR collection The journal Under better growing conditions, some individuals flower in the first year. In Mürbeck's classification, V. thapsus is placed in section Bothrospermae subsect. [10] While they can germinate in total darkness if proper conditions are present (tests give a 35% germination rate under ideal conditions), in the wild, they in practice only do so when exposed to light, or very close to the soil surface, which explains the plant's habitat preferences. The five stamens are of two types, with the three upper stamens being shorter, their filaments covered by yellow or whitish hairs, and having smaller anthers, while the lower two stamens have glabrous filaments and larger anthers. Kleinblütige Königskerze - Verbascum thapsus (Scrophulariaceae) Verbascum blattaria Verbascum densiflorum Verbascum lychnites Verbascum nigrum Verbascum phlomoides Verbascum speciosum. Some of the more whimsical ones included "hig candlewick", "indian rag weed", "bullicks lungwort", "Adams-rod", "hare's-beard" and "ice-leaf". is available at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118509661/home. giganteum, the hairs are densely white tomentose, and lower leaves strongly decurrent. The USDA plant distribution maps show it in all the U.S. states and all but Arctic Canada. Featured texts All Books All Texts latest This Just In Smithsonian Libraries FEDLINK (US) Genealogy Lincoln Collection. Its small, yellow flowers are densely grouped on a tall stem, which grows from a large rosette of leaves. [30][31][32] In North America, "common mullein" is used[33][34] while western United States residents commonly refer to mullein as "cowboy toilet paper". Select the purchase need to integrate history into forest ecology is further. Initial assessment . [74] Leaves were smoked to attempt to treat lung ailments, a tradition that in America was rapidly transmitted to Native American peoples. It belongs to the Scrophulariaceae family, and its origin is mainly European although it is also natural from Asia, Africa, and North America. With noun/verb tables for the different cases and tenses links to audio pronunciation and … A recent revision led its author to maintain V. giganteum but sink V. crassifolium into synonymy. Books to Borrow. emphasized (Bu ¨ rgi and Gimmi 2007). [31] Topical application of various V. thapsus-based preparations was recommended for the treatment of warts,[77] boils, carbuncles, hemorrhoids, and chilblains, amongst others. However, the populations are long persistent as a dormant pool of seeds buried in the soil. Quiets nervous, and bronchial, and urinary irritation, and cough. [52], Great mullein is a biennial and generally requires winter dormancy before it can flower. While many insects visit the flowers, only some bees actually accomplish pollination. [31][75] Glycyrrhizin compounds with bactericide effects in vitro were isolated from flowers. [37] Vernacular names include innumerable references to the plant's hairiness: "woolly mullein", "velvet mullein" or "blanket mullein",[32][38] "beggar's blanket", "Moses' blanket", "poor man's blanket", "Our Lady's blanket" or "old man's blanket",[31][34][39] and "feltwort", and so on ("flannel" is another common generic name). This gradient also included environmental extremes (e.g. European reference books call it "great mullein". (4) Delay of flowering until the third year was most common among northern genotypes and was a response to unfavourable growth conditions. Mullein (Verbascum thapsus ) also known as great mullein, is a dramatic biennial herb of the Scrophulariaceae or figwort family. [5][43][44] In northern Europe, it grows from sea level up to 1,850 m altitude,[4] while in China it grows at 1,400–3,200 m altitude. "The thick woolly leaves of V. thapsus, the Great Mullein, have a mucilaginous, bitterish taste, and a decoction of them is employed in domestic practice in catarrhs and diarrhoea. [42], Verbascum thapsus has a wide native range including Europe, northern Africa and Asia, from the Azores and Canary Islands east to western China, north to the British Isles, Scandinavia and Siberia, and south to the Himalayas. are descriptive or historical accounts, although these must offer insights into [note 2] The species had previously been designated as type species for Verbascum. The flowers are almost sessile, with very short pedicels (2 mm, 0.08 in). They include mullein thrips (Haplothrips verbasci),[67] Gymnaetron tetrum (whose larva consume the seeds) and the mullein moth (Cucullia verbasci). They are thick and decurrent, with much variation in leaf shape between the upper and lower leaves on the stem, ranging from oblong to oblanceolate, and reaching sizes up to 50 cm long and 14 cm across (19 inches long and 5 inches wide). need to convey strong and ecological messages that advance our understanding [8][9] They become smaller higher up the stem,[3][4] and less strongly decurrent down the stem. [10], Phytochemicals in Verbascum thapsus flowers and leaves include saponins, polysaccharides, mucilage, flavonoids, tannins, iridoid and lignin glycosides, and essential oils. Populations were chosen at the northern (southern Canada) and southern (southern Texas and Georgia) limits of its range in North America, and in North Carolina and came from a range of the habitats occupied by the species. Ecology. [3][4] The leaves are large, up to 50 cm long. Life history variation of common mullein (Verbascum thapsus) I. Latitudinal differences in population dynamics and timing of reproduction. [10] This dormancy is linked to starch degradation activated by low temperatures in the root, and gibberellin application bypasses this requirement. [27] Both subsp. 12:34 Fri 18th Sep 2020. woofgang. wet to very dry habitats) as well as different successional stages. V. × spurium W.D.J.Koch), have also been reported in North America. [58] Other bird species have been reported to consume the leaves (Hawaiian goose)[59] or flowers (palila),[60] or to use the plant as a source when foraging for insects (white-headed woodpecker). [9] Useful insects are also hosted by great mullein, including predatory mites of the genera Galendromus, Typhlodromus and Amblyseius, the minute pirate bug Orius tristicolor[67] and the mullein plant bug (Campylomma verbasci). This work describes life history variation in Verbascum thapsus L. with latitude. [3] Due to its morphological variation, V. thapsus has had a great many subspecies described. Eaton went so far as to write: "When botanists are so infatuated with wild speculation, as to tell us the mullein was introduced, they give our youngest pupils occasion to sneer at their teachers. [80], Roman soldiers are said to have dipped the plant stalks in grease for use as torches. [3] The flowering stem is solid and 2–2.5 cm (nearly an inch) across, and occasionally branched just below the inflorescence,[4] usually following damage. It is a member of the Scrophulariaceae, the snapdragon family. Other cultures use the leaves as wicks. Overview; Gallery; Names; Classification; Records; Literature; Sequences; Data Partners + Online Resources. Question Author. Search the history of over 446 billion web pages on the Internet. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. I Introduction. [48], In the United States it was imported very early in the 18th[note 3] century and cultivated for its medicinal and piscicide properties. [17][20] Introduced American populations show much less variation. org/wik i/Verba scum_th apsus. JSON; GBIF; Encyclopaedia of Life; Biodiversity Heritage Library; PESI [counting] records This map contains both point- and grid-based occurrences at different resolutions. oreophilum and Verbascum cheiranthifolium var. [70][71] A number of pest Lepidoptera species, including the stalk borer (Papaipema nebris) and gray hairstreak (Strymon melinus), also use V. thapsus as a host plant.