leaves, savory, garlic). offers an explanation provides that very same reason: Kristoff Glamann, 'European Trade, 1500-1750,' in, iii) Even in 16th century England, when living costs rose with growing population pressure, the Bury
a Christmas present what is still by far the most used of my dozen or more Indian and Oriental
Surely questions of supply, high distribution costs, and monopoly tell only part and perhaps the less
Library. distinct second best, namely India, then a much inferior source of spices. 13.714
4. What was once worth more by weight than gold (like Nutmeg) now occupy shelves in kitchens across the globe. 12.44
They were highly valued for their … Apothecaries, the medieval equivalent to pharmacies, were stocked with supplies of spices which were then carefully mixed with other spices, minerals, and animal products to create an array of medications to be ingested by or applied on a patient.
This is subjective but quote 24.00
b) Note the following in these Indian recipes: i) the use of the leading spices, medieval and modern: pepper, cinnamon, ginger, cloves, cardamom,
In a small skillet, heat vegetable oil/shortening; and add red pepper flakes, ½ tsp. To date, only Thailand has never been colonized by any foreign European power. Portugal's eastern trade: 1508-1595: The profitable trade in eastern spices is cornered by the Portuguese in the 16th century to the detriment of Venice, which has previously had a virtual monopoly of these valuable commodities - until now brought overland through India and Arabia, and then across the Mediterranean by the Venetians for distribution in western Europe.
The only spice, and not an Oriental one, whose relative
medieval Mediterranean (Venetian) trade, for 15 November 2001, at this URL: http://www.economics.utoronto.ca/munro5/lecnot201.htm
books show much simpler cooking without so many spices (Francois de la Varenne, 1651); and one
screen I have indicated the names of the chief spices, with their Indian names. 182.857
ii) Pickling, as mixture of salt brine and vinegar, another form of food preservation for fish especially,
I have no idea why it disappeared from Halsall's excellent site and would be happy to redirect this link to it if someone will point me toward it. 16.000
Where did Europe get spices from in the 1500s?
8d. $ CAD
1548–1580: Likely time period for reign of legendary Malaysian queen Siti Wan Kembang. They would h… gave you big portions'].
on cuisine indicate that for those special feasts when spices were used liberally, both fish and fowl
Foods, Cooking and recipes Spices in the Middle Ages - Pepper, Cinnamon, Cloves, Nutmeg, Ginger, Saffron, Cardamom, Coriander, Cumin, Turmeric, Mace, Anise, Caraway and Mustard Crusades introduced different Spices during the Middle Ages 158.45
minor assistance from me, for the ROM's 1983 Exhibition on, The Demand for Spices in Late-Medieval Europe, c) When I ask this question of my students, however, a very common answer to explain that demand
ginger, tea), from the reign of Diocletian in the late Roman Empire to the late 19th century? of Days' Wages
cooking to dull, bland, modern English cooking, even when the meats or fowl are perfectly fresh and
[One recalls the Woody Allen joke about the hotel in the
On the screen I present a few of my favourite Indian recipes, for, - Roghan Josh and Murgh Korma (lamb, beef, chicken dishes), - Morgee Masalah, Moorgee Kurma; Moorgee Badam, Moorgee Tanjore (chicken), - Shahi Kofta and Kuwab Mutter Masalah: meatballs with spiced sauces. Get ready to experience a world of flavor through spices. 4.000
century. Spices were believed to have important medical qualities; spices were ingredients in medieval pharmaceuticals.
more of a direct route, that new route in fact did not lower prices. Toronto
dominance of medieval commerce and finance rested principally upon their control of the Oriental
I especially liked learning that dock workers were paid bonuses in Nutmeg! Wages to
Those spice prices might be 10 to a 100-fold higher than what Europeans had paid at the source in the East Indies. of Days'
would just buy a goose, and only 1 1/1 pork loin roast, but three rabbits. Again, I have related the cost of spices and of other foodstuffs to the daily wage of a
Silk: Plain Satin
Ajwain - Typically ground, these seeds have a strong fragrance with thyme and cumin undertones. weekly outlays went on meat and fish vs. 20% for bread grains: certainly they followed the bible in
in d ster. from the previously mentioned collection, ii) Note again similar use of almonds, raisins (currants) and vinegar or wine; here used as a substitute
They are quite unlike modern English recipes, and surprisingly similar, in many
As well as spices and tea, they included silks, cottons, porcelains and other luxury goods. urban lawyers and professionals, merchants, etc. iii) Note that many of these recipes called for meat or fowl that was simply roasted without spices,
What was once tightly controlled by the Arabs for centuries was now available throughout Europe with the establishment of the Ocean Spice Trade route connecting Europe directly to South Asia (India) and South East Asia. 4.
If the aim had been to disguise the taste of the flesh (as I might do with very cheap meat in my own
The spice trade began in the Middle East over 4,000 years ago. 19.200
The maps and photographs really added to the content. 48.00
University of Toronto http://www.economics.utoronto.ca/munro5/. Daily Wage
Turmeric currently sells, in Toronto, for $8.85 CAD per pound or $19.52 per kilogram.
European exports to Asia were roughly 75% silver and only 25% goods in the early modern era. Roast the park, with cloves studded in the pork loin; then make a sauce with the roast
The Dutch were drawn to Indonesia in the late 1500s by the promise of immense profits in the lucrative spice trade. Spices came mainly from Asia. Regular chaotic street food scenes serving delicious, freshly cooked food while you watch and wait is common in any South East Asian country (see below). One of the most significant things about the culture and people of South East Asia is their relationship with food. ii) Note the other cooking condiments called for in cooking dishes with spices: sugar, honey, mustard,
more graphs, tables, and maps may be accessed from my on-line lectures for Economics 201Y, for
Though sea transport is usually so much cheaper than land transport, especially when
*****************. f) Were Spices a Necessity Only for Rich of Medieval Society? According to legend, she rode into battle with a sword, leading women horse riders. i) The necessity argument becomes qualified to mean a necessity only to preserve meat, and
qualities, and really only cinnamon did, spices were not a necessity, because other, far cheaper
In a mixing bowl, place ground meat (beef or lamb), egg, ground onions, and the spice
No. This influence, commingled with the local ingredients and methods of cooking, created some of the world’s most diverse cuisines.
may add this: THE CHILLY-Chili,Pepper -all Spices have an amazing history across Planet Earth literally. They are expensive on a per-unit basis, but it is the "smallness" of use that makes them affordable. London
lb. the Spring, Summer, and Fall months; in the winter months (early December to March), they usually worked only eight hours,
c) Note again that this decline in spice consumption came long before refrigeration, though it may
* As noted above, saffron has always been the world's most expensive spice or herb. 1.03
iii) Note again how expensive these spices were in relation to a craftsman's daily wage, from 6d.
My interest in spices, medieval and modern, is much more
on the spice trade from the East Indies to western Europe, you can appreciate how these costs would
Pike or pickerel: 1 whole, about 2 - 3 lb. 1; Brewers' Guild, Warden's Accounts (1424-1562); Corporation of London
brought Italian merchants in particular enormous profits; and it may very well be that Italian
i) The first chart is one that Dr Ngai-Berthrong of the Royal Ontario Museum prepared, with some
iii) Also the belief that spices and spiced foods served valuable medicinal functions: as shown on the
Cloves, nutmeg and mace – found only on a few volcanic islands in Indonesia – were luxury items in Medieval Europe.
iv) Some of these modern recipes call for spices that were unknown to the medieval world: in
Not rosemary -- that's silly. 279.960
and the quantities that could be purchased by a master carpenter's daily wage
week's lecture, the immense distances involved help explain why Oriental spices cost so much, were
American businessmen opened their own spice companies and started dealing directly with Asian growers rather than through European companies.
vii) Spices were in short a luxury and treated as such even by the very rich in late-medieval society. Trade and the proximity of the Asian countries also plays a great role in lending culinary flavors to neighboring countries. for medieval verjuice, which was a form of wine vinegar or soured lemon juice. number
at least this century was a Golden Age of generally high real wages, high real incomes for much of
Thanks for the highly fun to read short course on the history of the spice trade. 3.000
The spice trade flourished during the colonization period, which brought black pepper, cinnamon, cardamom, ginger, turmeric, nutmeg, and cloves (to name only a handful) from Asia via the ocean Spice Trade route (map below). However,
i) If meat consumption declined, it did not decline to the levels of the 13th and 14th centuries when
They were on demand because spices were used in medicine, in perfume ,in food and they also kept food fresh which was a big thing in 1500 Your email address will not be published. The graphs referred to in this text have not been reproduced in this document; but some tables
Clearly the lower classes were highly carnivorous. obviously occurred only in this present century. represent myths about the role of spices in medieval society. in d ster. a combination thereof. 30.48
** In Toronto a master carpenter currently (2001) earns $27.15 per hour and thus $217.20 for an eight-hour day.
avoirdupois and kilograms. possibly be tied to advances in agriculture. This page is reproduced as it once ran on Paul Halsall's Internet Medieval Sourcebook and is the product and intellectual property of Kenneth Hodges.
but nevertheless ate a great deal of it. English Kersey, Dyed
; March 10 – The Queen Elizabeth's Men troupe of actors is ordered to be founded in England. bread, 2/3 gallon of beer). Roast the lamb; then make a sauce with the roast drippings, the above ingredients, and ½ cup
Silk: Velvet: highest range
CAPOUN Y-ROSTYDE WITH BLACKE SAWSE: Roast Capon with Black Sauce
Spices led to the creation of vast empires and powerful cities.. 10.700
a Christmas present what is still by far the most used of my dozen or more Indian and Oriental
d) Has been conjectured (Glamman, Braudel) that it is linked to a relative decline in meat
The response to this challenge is that spices were a necessity for the rich but a luxury
Early Egyptian pharos employed agents of espionage to ferret-out disloyal subject and to locate tribes that could be conquered and enslaved. shows how relatively expensive were spices, relative to both a day's wage and to prices for other
coconut paste to the chicken about 20 minutes before the end; with the heat off, add the
Perspectives Committee, Senior Alumni Association, University of Toronto, at University College,
coming of refrigeration. 8 November 1988. guildhall feasts: the first for the London Brewers' Guild Feast of 1422, and the second for the London
The Portuguese started to establish trading posts in Asia around 1500. What spices were popular in Italy during the 1400s, 1500s, and 1600s? 22.54
thus for adults; an annual per capita consumption that declined to just 20 kg. per lb. d. ster.
turmeric. The Pacific Ocean route of the Spanish Manila-Acapulco galleon was established in 1565 and operated for 250 years (Schurz, 1939).
is that spices, before the age of refrigeration, were required to preserve foods, meats especially. b) Far and away the most important was pepper, which was always shipped as a large bulk
per kg. Brown Sugar
19th Oct 2015. 266.00
ginger, and coriander; stir-fry to 3 minutes, and then add to the chicken mixture; add
butter, 1.5 lb. Buying black pepper, cinnamon, cloves and other spices is so inexpensive now that it seems hard to believe that once, they were valued as highly as gold and silver. The English East India Company,
iii) Even in 16th century England, when living costs rose with growing population pressure, the Bury
[One recalls the Woody Allen joke about the hotel in the
d. gr. headaches, colic; and as 'carminatives,' i.e. Street food is oftentimes available 24hrs where most socializing and business deals get done and it’s also usually the most affordable way to eat. 3.000
Mid 1500s: Inés de Suárez, fought alongside Pedro de Valdivia during the conquest of Chile. Those spice prices might be 10 to a 100-fold higher than what Europeans
of the very source of the Oriental spice trade in the East Indies and Malaysia, and India. 5.62
in pence groot Brabant and English pence sterling, compared to prices in Toronto
English food cooked to death by Englishman. of Minutes
dramatic difference (pepper and ginger cheaper, cinnamon more expensive). 0.80
Roast Lamb with Cameline Sauce. 3.500
ii) Overlooks the fact that spices were widely used in cooking of wide variety of non-meat dishes:
ii) In England, a 15th-century account book for two parish priests and a servant show that 35% of their
the lower strata, with very low rents and grain prices, when even the poor could afford to eat much
Home Science Math History Literature Technology Health Law Business All Topics Random. How Much Did Silks and Spices Really Cost? The finding was quite interesting as it is linked to the Spice Route and Spice Wars of 1500s . i) This argument assumes that the carnivorous lower classes had to put up with virtually inedible meat,
getting goods from producers to consumers.
Gama, 1497, on arriving in Calicut, India: 'I come in search of Christians and spices;' quickly forgot
Medieval and renaissance …
vi) Indeed, Constance Hieatt and Sharon Butler in their book Pleyn Delit: Medieval Cookery for
soups, vegetables, pies, cakes, jams and jellies, drinks, etc. porridge, and 1/4 lb of meat; and far more substantial, of course, was the daily ration of a Tudor
Continuing Education Symposium (University of Toronto): http://www.economics.utoronto.ca/munro5/lecnot201.htm. 10.00
currants, and ground almonds; quickly stir-fry in a large skillet or wok; turn down the
many days' wages would it take to buy a pound of each of these commodities (silk, pepper, cinnamon,
results, until a lady-friend took pity on me -- or more likely on her own stomach -- by giving me as
Remaining very close to their food sources is the key to the delicious food of this region. 3759.05
commodities could preserve foods, meats, especially, far more effectively. negotiation costs, and above all protection (and insurance) costs. of Days'
When saffron is called for in
Modern Cooks emphatically state: 'Much medieval cooking [for rich and poor alike] was so bland as
Papyri from Ancient Egypt in1555 BC classified coriander, fennel, juniper, cumin, garlic and thyme as health promoting spices (3). 1.778
Spices in the Medieval and Early Modern European Economy: a) Furthermore, no economic historian of late-medieval Europe can ignore the importance of the spice
here is admittedly much more tenuous than the role of spices in the Dutch rise to power. Most interesting and amazing No.
master building craftsmen (mason, carpenter): showing how many days' wages to buy a pound; and
in relative values, on this chart, i.e. Spices were what we would nowadays call mass luxuries. in late-medieval Europe; and I thus have a considerable interest in living standards and consumption
List of prices of medieval items. vinegar, almonds, raisins, rice flour, The Relative Decline in Spice Consumption after 1650. conspicuous consumption. The use of fresh spices and ingredients in all dishes creates the naturally complex and deep flavors of South East Asian cuisine, which is as diverse and interesting as its colonial history. The Range and Costs of Oriental Spices, i) The first chart is one that Dr Ngai-Berthrong of the Royal Ontario Museum prepared, with some
Some time back I did a study of Chillies esp for Export in India’s Shipping Trade for our Commodity Dept & Lab. 41.48
ii) Town artisans and labourers, small farmers and peasants, of course, would rarely if ever consume
price: for in 1993, it was priced at $4.00 CAD a gram (in Toronto); and is now (2001) $3.75 a gram. How Were Spices Used in Medieval English and French Cuisine? Daily Wage
English Broadcloth, Dyed: average
More than half of all medieval English and French recipes call for
for medieval. of boiling water, if needed for the gravy. Remote health initiatives to help minimize work-from-home stress; Oct. 23, 2020
The spice trade changed the culinary world forever. drippings, the above ingredients, and ½ cup of boiling water. 144.200
at least one dish of this type during their main meal, which was usually the noon meal; and more such
have to go through London first). colonization from the late 15th to 17th centuries. I soon discovered