Electrical stunning includes hand-held and automated electrical stunning equipment. Equipment that is designed for a single point contact with the head or neck (for example, an electric knife) may not produce an effective stun; there is the risk that it will only immobilize (paralyze) the bird without inducing unconsciousness. … Slaughter houses have no such ethical basis for their methods. Department of Animal Science and Nutrition procedures. Pigs can also exhibit gasping type of breathing or hyperventilation during induction but this may be more due to a brainstem response to the hypercapnia rather than a sign of aversive behaviour. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. This assessment includes understanding that a given sign may be useful if it is present but not always if it absent, for example: Vocalization and spontaneous blinking, when present are reliable signs for consciousness but when absent are not reliable signs for unconsciousness. The animal must be alive at the time of slaughter. targeting the brainstem using landmarks other than midline frontal may include, for example,: the side of the head, behind the ear or near the poll at the top or the back of the head, however, alternative approaches may increase the likelihood that the brainstem and midbrain will be missed, a projectile can sever the spinal cord without causing unconsciousness. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. The slaughtering method of animals is common to Judaism and Islam in terms of cutting the neck and avoiding cutting the spinal cord of animal at the beginning of slaughter [10]. Temple Grandin – Updated June 2017 to include information on Zone of Transition between fully conscious and unconscious. This research paper discuss the difference between the halal (Islamic) and the recent (conventional) methods of animals slaughter and explain the effect of each method on the meat safety and hygiene. Presented by: The licence holder's written PCP should include: written documentation that the equipment complies with the federal Firearms Act and all applicable provincial and local legislation and that firearms are well maintained as per manufacturer's recommendations, can be used as the primary method of stunning birds or rabbits in low volume establishments because of the slower line speeds, requires equipment appropriate for the species. stunning, shutting, electrical shock…etc., are hindering the bleeding process. The vast majority of sheep are pre-stunned in accordance with the relevant Australian Standard, and in line with State legislation (for domestic consumption) and federal legislation (for export). CVASU 3. Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences Al-dzabh (slaughter) Severing the trachea (halqum), oesophagus (mari’)and the carotid arteries and jugular veins (wadajain) of sheep, cattle and poultry. The section reads as follows  Either of the following two methods of slaughtering and handling are hereby found to be humane: a) In the case of cattle, calves, horses, mules, sheep, swine, and other livestock, all animals are rendered insensible to pain by a single blow or gunshot or an electrical, chemical or other means that is rapid and effective, before being shackled, hoisted, thrown, cast, or cut. the right equipment is used for the right species at all times, the current (amperage and voltage) is adequate for the species slaughtered to avoid electroimmobilization, employees who conduct the stunning require adequate training for the specific equipment used, animals are well restrained and stay calm, for head-only stunning, the outcome is a reversible stun, the electrodes must always be placed to span the brain for the current to flow properly through the brain for all food animals. If done correctly, the circuit from electrifying the electrodes will produce an electric field in the brain that depolarizes or hyperpolarizes the neuronal membranes resulting in an epileptiform seizure, which renders the animal unconscious. stunned as per other slaughter as certain stun methods (not captive-bolt) are accepted by a number of halal certification bodies for certain species.1 However, any stunning is considered ‘injuring’ the animal in Jewish Law and is not permitted. The licence holder's written PCP should include the following preventive measures, procedures and information: the stunning equipment is clearly defined which type of stunning it is meant to provide , including reversible or irreversible stunning outcome, the protocol requiring that it is used properly as per the manufacturer's specifications to result in an effective stun, the equipment is positioned correctly to span the brain for the current to flow through the brain, there is a written protocol for the routine maintenance of the equipment, frequency should include at a minimum at the startup of production, production shift changes, before each new lot of animals or employee shift changes. A stunning box is the most common method of restraining cattle (Fig. It could be penetrating or non-penetrating (percussion stunning). Shields, Sara J., Raj, A.B.M, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 13:281 – 299, 2010: Girasole, Mariagrazia, et al, Ital J Food Saf. This is to purify the animal’s body of any type of bacteria, toxins or germs that may reside in the blood of the animal, which can lead to different types of illnesses. Emus may be bled by cutting the major vessels near the cranial part of the neck similar to turkeys, staff members are able to observe, inspect, and access the animals for emergency re-stunning if required, during bleed out, if any animal returns to sensibility, the stun and slaughter of all other animals stop, and the situation is corrected immediately, no scalding or singeing , skinning or dressing procedure is performed on any animal until bleeding is complete and the animal is dead, bleeding occurs as soon as possible after stunning, especially if head-only electric stun is used, in general, best practice is under 15 seconds for head-only electric stunning; however since rabbits can return to sensibility rapidly, within 5 seconds is preferable, bleeding is to be performed by severing at least one jugular vein and carotid artery or by decapitation, when cutting the blood vessels using a transverse incision, it is recommended to severe both carotids and jugular veins for rapid bleed-out, decapitation is only acceptable after effective stunning, dressing procedures are not started until the rabbit is dead, both carotid arteries and jugular veins of birds should be severed since this is the fastest method of exsanguination and results in rapid blood loss and death, operational procedures that ensure birds do not pile up at the entry to the guide bars, monitoring the cut to ensure that it is properly placed (below the mandible), birds should be bled within 15 seconds of electric stunning, birds should bleed for at least 90 seconds, they are monitored on the bleed rail to ensure that they do not return to consciousness, they are dead before they enter the scald tank to avoid extreme suffering due to death from scalding if still possibly sensible, efficacy of the stunning and automated neck-cutting equipment should be checked by trained personnel each time the line starts up, at the start of each shift and at the beginning of a new lot of birds to ensure stunning and slaughter are effective and humane, efficacy of backup stunning equipment is checked at the same frequency to ensure the deviation procedure for failed stuns is working, there is zero tolerance for birds missing the automatic knife and being missed by the backup cutter after stunning methods that have any potential to be reversible, these animals have a strong possibility of entering the scald tank alive and fully conscious (uncut red birds), an uncut red bird represents a failure of the slaughter process, the cause of the failure should be immediately investigated by the licence holder, the licence holder should take immediate effective corrective actions to prevent similar failures, all incidents and related corrective actions should be documented, inadequately bled birds differ from uncut red birds, they have a neck cut, but for a variety of reasons, the bleed out is not effective, the probability, in general, is that these birds were dead before entering the scald tank, the presence of these mild to brick-red carcasses at the preselection station may be an indication of improper sticking, when carcasses have been neck-cut but have not bled out properly, the licence holder should evaluate the stunning and killing procedures, develop and implement a corrective action to prevent recurrence. Animals that are electroimmobilized look virtually the same as those that are effectively stunned. initial tonic phase of the seizure includes: constant rapid body and wing tremors immediately after stunning, rigidly extended legs (may be difficult to see in shackles), may have petit mal body convulsions including non-intentional wing flapping after rapid body tremors have stopped, rhythmic breathing (check cloaca for movements to indicate breathing), swallowing reflex (deglutition reflex), manifested as beak movements after stunning (from water entering mouth) and after cutting (from blood entering the mouth), shaking of head during cutting and bleeding from blood entering nares (intentional body movement), vigorous wing flapping (intentional body movement), return of tension in the neck after the limp phase, some types of current systems can have a relaxing or immobilizing effect on the neck ; in these cases the signs of return to sensibility after stunning can be masked, response to pain, such as neck cutting, can be an arc-reflex involving spinal neural pathways only and is not a reliable indicator for sensibility; it must evaluated with other signs and what electrical parameters are used to stun the bird, loss of rhythmic breathing (check cloaca for movement to indicate rhythmic breathing), rigidly extended legs (more difficult to see when shackled), vigorous involuntary flapping and severe convulsions, absence of a third eyelid (nictitating membrane) movement and other eye movements and reflexes, response to pain, such as neck cutting can be an arc-reflex involving spinal neural pathways only is not a reliable indicator for sensibility; it must evaluated with other signs, such as whether the head is floppy, loss of posture, muscle tone, relaxed, limp body, no rhythmic breathing (check cloaca for movement to indicate rhythmic breathing), absence of third eyelid (nictitating membrane) reflex or spontaneous blinking, blinking (third eyelid) and third eyelid reflex, the outcome of effective cutting and bleeding of all food animals is to result in death through exsanguination of the animal with all methods of stunning, especially if there is any potential for the stunning to be reversible, this ensures the animal will not regain consciousness during further dressing procedures, stunned animals are bled out as soon as possible and remain insensible until death, the time between effective stun and effective stick is kept to a minimum. For example for a single phase waterbath system: the height of the waterbath stunner water level and the level of brine in the waterbath stunner are adjusted throughout the day as needed to ensure even the smallest birds are submerged up to the base of their wings, or the birds' shoulders in the electrified water, For systems requiring increased salinity, salt can be added to the waterbath solution before the stunning starts and an effective salt concentration of the brine is maintained throughout the day to facilitate the flow of an effective electric current through the birds, Both AC or DC currents are used in single phase water bath systems with either sinusoidal or square waveforms, lower frequencies at higher amperages and voltages produce more effective and longer stunning times in the birds. 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