The geography and climate of Canada are important factors that shape life for those who settle in Canada. There are over 200 young volcanic centres that stretch northward from the Cascade Range to Yukon. The first Europeans to reach the country were likely the Vikings and it is believed that Norse explorer Leif Eriksson led them to the coast of Labrador or Nova Scotia in 1000 CE. The third branch is made up of the Supreme Court. The shield also encloses an area of wetlands, the Hudson Bay lowlands. Lesson Planet. [62], The southernmost point is Middle Island, in Lake Erie, Ontario (41°41′N 82°40′W); the southernmost water point lies just south of the island, on the Ontario–Ohio border (41°40′35″N). It covers Manitoba, northern Ontario and Quebec, most of Saskatchewan, southern Alberta, southwestern Nunavut and the southern half of Baffin Island. The southernmost point of the Canadian mainland is Point Pelee, Ontario 41°54′32″N 82°30′32″W / 41.909°N 82.509°W / 41.909; -82.509 (Point Pelee, Ontario). It has three branches of government. Canada is part of North America. Canada stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west; to the north lies the Arctic Ocean. There are millions of lakes in Canada. [43] Parts of the Appalachians are home to a rich endemic flora and fauna and are considered to have been nunataks during the last glaciation era. In addition, agriculture and ranching play a significant role in the Prairie Provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba) and several parts of the rest of the country. By total area … Alberta also produces 75% of Canada’s oil and is important for coal and natural gas. The great plains consist of a large, flat, and treeless area of land. The Anahim Volcanic Belt was formed as a result of the North American Plate sliding westward over the Anahim hotspot. Rounding out the ten longest rivers within Canada are the Nelson, Churchill, Peace, Fraser, North Saskatchewan, Ottawa, Athabasca and Yukon rivers. GEOGRAPHY Canada is a vast and rugged land. In 1713, a conflict developed between the English and French and the English won control of Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and Hudson Bay. To the west of the Canadian Shield are the central plains, or prairies. 13 U.S. states share a border with Canada: The Origins of British Columbia in Canada, Origins of the Saskatchewan Province of Canada, Canada's Population Estimates, Third Quarter 2018, M.A., Geography, California State University - East Bay, B.A., English and Geography, California State University - Sacramento. Fossil fuels are a more recently developed resource in Canada, with oil and gas being extracted from deposits in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin since the mid 1900s. These hills are known for a great richness in precious minerals. Learn about Canada and it's provinces, territories, and capitals with this educational kids video and catchy song. Other than in the plateau regions of the Interior and its many river valleys, most of British Columbia is coniferous forest. Major elements of this watershed include Lake Winnipeg, Nelson River, the North Saskatchewan and South Saskatchewan Rivers, Assiniboine River, and Nettilling Lake on Baffin Island. The Chilcotin Group is believed to have formed as a result of back-arc extension behind the Cascadia subduction zone. The border of Canada with the US is the longest bi-national land border in the world. Canada shares a 5,525-mile- (8,890-km-) long border with the United States (including Alaska)—the longest border in the world not patrolled by military forces—and the overwhelming majority of its population lives within 185 miles (300 km) of the international boundary. [50] The eruption produced a 22.5-kilometre (14.0 mi) lava flow, and, according to Nisga'a legend, blocked the flow of the Nass River.[51]. [11][12] There are also freshwater glaciers in the Canadian Rockies, the Coast Mountains and the Arctic Cordillera.[13]. Forestry has long been a major industry in Canada. Extensively developed in British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec and Labrador, the many dams have long provided a clean, dependable source of energy. In the east, the mountainous maritime provinces have an irregular coastline on the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Atlantic. In Canada’s far north lies the frozen Arctic. By land area alone, however, Canada ranks fourth, the difference being due to it having the world's largest proportion of fresh water lakes. Canada covers 9,984,670 km2 (3,855,100 sq mi) and a panoply of various geoclimatic regions, of which there are 8 main regions. Some symbols of Canada are the beaver and the maple leaf. [55], The northern parts of Alberta, Manitoba and British Columbia, most of Northwest Territories and Nunavut, and parts of Yukon are drained by the Arctic watershed. The physical geography of Canada is widely varied. Cattle and sheep are raised in the valleys and plateaus of British Columbia. [62], The westernmost point is Boundary Peak 187 (60°18′22.929″N 141°00′7.128″W) at the southern end of the Yukon–Alaska border, which roughly follows 141°W but leans very slightly east as it goes North 60°18′04″N 141°00′36″W / 60.301°N 141.010°W / 60.301; -141.010 (Boundary Peak 187). [14] Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada range from Arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Canada's many rivers have afforded extensive development of hydroelectric power. This land was later divided into different provinces, one of which was Manitoba. The Peace River Valley in northeastern British Columbia is Canada's most northerly agricultural region, although it is part of the Prairies. The less depleted (but still greatly diminished) salmon population continues to drive a strong fisheries industry. Between the plateau and the coast is the province's largest mountain range, the Coast Mountains. Total Size: 9,984,670 square km. Fruit and vegetables are grown primarily in the Annapolis Valley of Nova Scotia, Southwestern Ontario, the Golden Horseshoe region of Ontario, along the south coast of Georgian Bay and in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia. [40] The Great Lakes feed the St. Lawrence River (in the southeast) where lowlands host much of Canada's population. Cattle, sheep and hogs are raised on the prairies, cattle and hogs in Western Ontario, sheep and hogs in Quebec, and sheep in the Maritimes. The Appalachian mountains (more specifically the Chic-Choc Mountains, Notre Dame, and Long Range Mountains) are an old and eroded range of mountains, approximately 380 million years in age. [3] Of Canada's thirteen provinces and territories, only two are landlocked (Alberta and Saskatchewan) while the other eleven all directly border one of three oceans. In this geography of Canada lesson plan, students locate features such as rivers, lakes, cities, provinces, and more. Canada has 7,200 square kilometres (2,800 mi2) of irrigated land (1993 estimate). Western Canada has many volcanoes and is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, a system of volcanoes found around the margins of the Pacific Ocean. These plains are famous for their raising of livestock and agriculture. And with the differences in each region, there is a very different accompanying landscape and climate. The southern plains are mostly grass and the north is forested. Canada is currently warming at twice the global average, and this is effectively irreversible. Canada occupies the top half of the North American continent, where it borders the United States — Canada’s only neighboring nation — to its south (and north-east, via the isolated state of Alaska ). The Canadian shield is also called the mineral house. The ground in the Arctic is mostly composed of permafrost, making construction difficult and often hazardous, and agriculture virtually impossible. The provinces with the largest forestry industries are British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec. The Churchill River and Saint John River are other important elements of the Atlantic watershed in Canada. Canada For Students 8th - Higher Ed Standards. Canada is located in the Northern and Western Hemispheres of the globe 4. [58] The Shield is also covered by vast boreal forests that support an important logging industry. [56], Canada shares with the U.S. the world's longest binational border at 8,893 kilometres (5,526 mi); 2,477 kilometres (1,539 mi) are with Alaska. Large diamond concentrations have been recently developed in the Arctic, making Canada one of the world's largest producers. The pillow lavas in rocks over 2 billion years old in the Canadian Shield signify that great oceanic volcanoes existed during the early stages of the formation of the Earth's crust. Boreal forest covers much of the shield, with a mix of conifers that provide valuable timber resources in areas such as the Central Canadian Shield forests ecoregion that covers much of Northern Ontario. … Five per cent of Canada's land area is arable, none of which is for permanent crops. In addition, there have been numerous initiatives for secession. The largest, and best known, is Sudbury, Ontario. The fisheries industry has historically been one of Canada's strongest. This basin is most important in fighting drought in the prairies and producing hydroelectricity, especially in Manitoba, northern Ontario and Quebec. Canada has a vast geography that occupies much of the continent of North America, sharing land borders with the contiguous United States to the south and the U.S. state of Alaska to the northwest. United States & Canada Physical Geography The great plains are located to the west of the Interior Plains. Choose your answers to the questions and click 'Next' to see the next set of questions. Canada's position between the Soviet Union (now Russia) and the U.S. was strategically important during the Cold War since the route over the North Pole and Canada was the fastest route by air between the two countries and the most direct route for intercontinental ballistic missiles. The headwaters of the Yukon River, the largest and longest of the rivers on the Pacific Slope, lie in northern British Columbia at Atlin and Teslin Lakes. +1 (514) 937-9445 or Toll-free (Canada & US) +1 (888) 947-9445 | Home About Forum News Client Portal Contact [53], Canada's two longest rivers are the Mackenzie, which empties into the Arctic Ocean and drains a large part of northwestern Canada, and the St. Lawrence, which drains the Great Lakes and empties into the Gulf of St. Lawrence. In Canada, human geographers might study the status of Indigenous languages or differences between rural and urban Canadians, among many other topics. Download Geography of Canada App 1.0.0 for iPad & iPhone free online at AppPure. The Great Lakes and Lake Nipigon are also drained by the St. Lawrence. Geography Now! A small area of southwestern Saskatchewan is drained by Battle Creek, which empties into the Milk River.[55]. The dry, temperate climate of the Okanagan Valley in south central British Columbia provides ideal conditions for fruit growing and a flourishing wine industry; the semi-arid belt of the Southern Interior also includes the Fraser Canyon, and Thompson, Nicola, Similkameen, Shuswap and Boundary regions and fruit-growing is common in these areas also, and also in the West Kootenay. [40] Canada also encompasses vast maritime terrain, with the world's longest coastline of 243,042 kilometres (151,019 mi). Canada’s national motto, A Mari usque ad Mare, or “ From Sea to Sea, ” captures the vastness of the nation, as the country quite literally stretches from the Pacific Ocean on its western coast to the …
2020 geography of canada