Originally begun some 1,500 years ago as a celebration of peace on earth and bountiful harvests, the sumo tournament, now held six times a year, still pays tribute to its beginnings through various subtle rites and motions. If a bout lasts up to four minutes, the referee or one of the judges sitting around the ring may call a mizu-iri or "water break". At certain Shinto shrines, forms of ritual dance where a human is said to wrestle with a … When the higher-ranked rikishi touches both hands on the sand-dusted clay surface, the stand-off begins. At the beginning of each match, the victor of the last match offers a wooden ladleful of water to the next wrestler before entering the ring, for the incoming competitor to perform a symbolic cleansing of the mouth and body. The 18th century brought forth several notable wrestlers such as Raiden Tameemon, Onogawa Kisaburō and Tanikaze Kajinosuke, the first historical yokozuna. Also, prize money is given to the winner of each divisional championship, which increases from ¥100,000 for a jonokuchi victory up to ¥10 million for winning the top division. Many elements date from this period, such as the dohyō-iri, the heya system, the gyōji and the mawashi. In 1684, sumo was permitted to be held for charity events on the property of Shinto shrines, as was common in Kyoto and Osaka. After reaching a consensus, they can uphold or reverse the referee's decision or order a rematch, known as a torinaoshi. [33] No prize money is awarded for bouts decided by a fusenshō or forfeit victory. A sumo wrestler leads a highly regimented way of life. The sekitori are given their own room in the stable, or may live in their own apartments, as do married wrestlers; the junior wrestlers sleep in communal dormitories. The most successful amateur wrestlers in Japan (usually college champions) can be allowed to enter professional sumo at makushita (third division) or sandanme (fourth division) rather than from the very bottom of the ladder. [5] The first historically-attested sumo fights were held in 642 at the court of Empress Kōgyoku to entertain a Korean legation. The last draw in the top division was in September 1974.[12]. Thus, the world of the sumo wrestler is split broadly between the junior wrestlers, who serve, and the sekitori, who are served. The professional sumo observed by the Japan Sumo Association is called ōzumō, or "grand sumo". Tradition says that this started when the winning wrestler was given a bow to commemorate his victory, and out of joy he would perform a dance. The sport was promoted by the Tokugawa shogunate as a form of entertainment. From once they are called to mount the dohyo, makuuchi division wrestlers have four minutes to prepare for their bout. However, he does not look like most athletes. Origins & Traditions. San'yaku wrestlers also receive a relatively small additional tournament allowance, depending on their rank, and yokozuna receive an additional allowance every second tournament, associated with the making of a new tsuna belt worn in their ring entering ceremony. In these cases, the three wrestle each other in pairs with the first to win two in a row take the tournament. Many develop type 2 diabetes or high blood pressure, and they are prone to heart attacks due to the enormous amount of body mass and fat that they accumulate. Prehistoric wall paintings indicate that sumo originated from an agricultural ritual dance performed in prayer for a good harvest. The explosive physical face-off of a sumo bout is preceded by a lengthy series of rituals and posturing which have origins in ancient warfare and the Shinto religion. Some Eastern European athletes have been successful enough to be scouted into professional sumo in Japan, much like their Japanese amateur counterparts. If a winner is still not found after another four minutes, the fight restarts from the tachi-ai after another mizu-iri. "striking one another")[1] is a form of competitive full-contact wrestling where a rikishi (wrestler) attempts to force his opponent out of a circular ring (dohyō) or into touching the ground with any body part other than the soles of his feet (usually by throwing, shoving or pushing him down). A Shinto priest blesses the dohyo prior to the tournament and is refereed by a gyoji. With the exception of the san'yaku-ranked wrestlers, the first bouts tend to be between wrestlers who are within a few ranks of each other. At the initial charge, both wrestlers must jump up from the crouch simultaneously after touching the surface of the ring with two fists at the start of the bout. After a few tragic car accidents involving sumo wrestlers, … Yokozuna, or grand champions, are generally expected to compete for and to win the top division tournament title on a regular basis, hence the promotion criteria for yokozuna are very strict. Wrestlers lower than the second-highest division, who are considered trainees, receive only a fairly small allowance instead of a salary. Kickboxing is a stand-up combat sport based on kicking and punching, historically developed from karate mixed with boxing. They also are expected to wear a more elaborate form of topknot called an ōichō (big ginkgo leaf) on formal occasions. Occasionally the shimpan will overrule the gyōji and give the bout to the other wrestler. There is an awful lot more to sumo wrestling than most outsiders ever realise. Once a wrestler joins a stable, they are required to grow out their hair in order to form a topknot. The maximum length of a match varies depending on the division. If after four more minutes, they are still deadlocked, they may have a second break, after which they start from the beginning. Younger wrestlers also attend classes, although their education differs from the typical curriculum of their non-sumo peers. Sumo. [33] Immediately after the match, the winner receives an envelope from the referee with half of his share of the sponsorship, while the other half is put in a fund for his retirement. Dressed in beautiful kimonos, they proceed through the front doors, then head to their respective locker rooms. As an escape from the […] Once a decision is made, the chief judge will announce the decision to the spectators and the wrestlers alike. Since 1958, six Grand Sumo tournaments (Japanese: honbasho) have been held each year: three at the Sumo Hall (or Ryōgoku Kokugikan) in Ryōgoku, Tokyo (January, May, and September), and one each in Osaka (March), Nagoya (July), and Fukuoka (November). April 3, 2015. The tradition has remained with the sport through several centuries. Only when the referee (called gyoji) indicates that the time limit has been reached do the two rikishi square off one last time. The last day of the tournament is called senshūraku, which literally means "the pleasure of a thousand autumns". Takeminakata was the ruler of the common people and Takemikazuchi was the god of wind, water and agriculture. If the match has not yet ended after the alotted time has elapsed, a mizu-iri (water break) is taken, after which the wrestlers continue the fight from their previous positions. The most common basic forms are grabbing the opponent by the mawashi (belt) and then forcing him out (四つ相撲, yotsu-zumō) or pushing the opponent out of the ring without a firm grip (押し相撲, oshi-zumō).
2020 sumo wrestling traditions