Symptoms: Stiffness of the hind legs with an arched back and tucked in flanks. Gia Turner has been a writer since 2003. Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. Anemia treatment is not a one-size-fits-all remedy. Blood requires hemoglobin (an iron-rich protein within red blood cells) for transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide within the body's tissues. The presence of schistocytes or spherocytes may also help identify the pathophysiology associated with the cause of anemia (eg, spherocytes are seen with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia). Anemia is defined as the condition of having a lower-than-normal red blood cell count. Vitamin deficiency anemias. Place mineral and protein blocks in your sheep habitat. To correct the percent reticulocytes, the formula (see below) can be applied. The reticulocyte count is usually reported as a percent of the RBC mass. A corrected reticulocyte percent >1% indicates regeneration in dogs and cats (see Table: Assessment of Regeneration in Anemia). Figure 3. Some other parasites that affect sheep and goats are those of the Trichostrongylus family, particularly Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus axei, and the protozoa coccidia. A blood smear should be evaluated for abnormalities in RBC morphology or size and for RBC parasites. If autoagglutination is present, there is no need to perform a Coombs' test. Serology or PCR for infectious agents such as feline leukemia virus, Ehrlichia, equine infectious anemia virus, and Babesia may also help define the cause of anemia (see Table: Infectious Causes of Anemia). Bottle Jaw is caused by severe anemia (lack of red blood cells). Treatment and Recovery. Common symptoms in sheep include depression, paler-than-usual gums and eyelids, weakness, anorexia, diarrhea and an accumulation of fluid under the jaw called "bottle jaw.". The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Veterinary Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America. Terms used for description of abnormalities with MCHC include normochromia and hypochromia. Aspirates also allow for an evaluation of orderly maturation of the red and white blood cell lines, the ratio of myeloid to erythroid precursors (M:E ratio), and the number of platelet precursors. Plasma protein is also useful for further classifying the cause of anemia. Producers should assess the herd or flock’s general health on a regular basis, including vital signs, body condition, and coat. Cross-transmission of Haemonchus between sheep and cattle can occur but not as readily as transmission between homologous species. The lack of expected clinical signs may alert the clinician to the time frame involved. I didn’t bother even trying to do a new fecal exam on him. When not writing, she cares for and trains horses, dogs and other domestic animals. A test for autoagglutination can be done by placing a drop of saline on a slide with a fresh drop of the animal's blood; the slide should be gently rotated to mix the drops together, then evaluated grossly and microscopically for macro- and microagglutination. Questions might include duration of clinical signs, history of exposure to toxins (eg, rodenticides, heavy metals, toxic plants), drug treatments, vaccinations, travel history, and any prior illnesses. In some cases large worm burdens can develop very rapidly and cause sheep deaths without warning. for E. mac. Parasitism is the most common disease affecting domestic sheep and is a frequent underlying cause of anemia, according to … For the dairy animal, she will loose weight, have poor appetite, under-lactate both in quantity and quality (nutrient makeup), get bullied, have weaker babies, have complications when lambing / kidding, and be susceptible to other illnesses and injuries. Clinical signs depend on the severity and duration (acute vs. chronic) of the anemia. FAMACHA scores are given to determine the severity of anemia. After acute blood loss or hemolytic crisis, reticulocytosis usually takes 3–4 days to become evident. The de-wormer package will include directions on dosage. The M:E ratio is always interpreted in light of a recent CBC, because changes in the ratio could also be due to suppression of one cell line compared with the other. Polycythemia was induced when the infusions were continued. b Pathogenic species of Theileria are found in Africa, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Asia, and Europe. Anemia is an absolute decrease in RBC numbers, hemoglobin concentration, or PCV. ... Cattle, cats, dogs, horses, sheep. A normal temperature range for sheep and goats is between 101.5°F and 103.5°F. Anemia is a life-threatening illness to goats from which they will not recover until you have administered the appropriate dewormer to kill the worms causing the problem and begin a long-term treatment with Vitamin B 12 injections and iron supplements. In younger animals, various bacteria, viruses and parasites of the upper and lower respiratory tract are often involved in the development of pneumonia. The principal stomach worms of sheep and goats are Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta, Ostertagia trifurcata, Trichostrongylus axei (see Gastrointestinal Parasites of Cattle), and in some tropical regions, Mecistocirrus digitatus. Look to see what active chemicals are in each brand. A noteworthy exception is Toxoplasma gondii, which causes coccidiosis in cats and can cause abortion in sheep, goats, and people. Because anemia is the principle clinical problem, mucous membrane pallor is one of the easiest ways to monitor sheep, and has proven effective as a diagnostic approach. A CBC, including a platelet and a reticulocyte count, will provide information on the severity of anemia and degree of bone marrow response and also allow for evaluation of other cell lines. A 10-year-old, male-castrated golden retriever has a 1-month history of mild lethargy and decreased appetite. PMID: 11769347 [Indexed for MEDLINE] MeSH terms. Rotate de-worming products to protect against resistant parasites. 2. For example, treating for barber’s pole worm when M. ovis is the cause will lead to mortalities, and vice versa. ... Cattle, cats, dogs, horses, sheep. Barber's pole worm (Haemonchus contortus) is a potentially harmful roundworm parasite of sheep which can cause a disease called haemonchosis. Diagnosis can be made by CBC, but may be refined by additional tests. There are many types of anemia, and your doctor will create a treatment plan based on the cause of your anemia. Yes. Treatment can be symptomatic, but often requires addressing the underlying cause. Macrocytosis (an increase in the MCV) usually correlates with a regenerative anemia (see Table: Assessment of Regeneration in Anemia). If no evidence of external bleeding is found, a source of internal or occult blood loss must be sought, eg, a ruptured splenic tumor, other neoplasia, coagulopathy, GI ulceration, or parasites. verify here. Bruising or bleeding may be signs of a coagulopathy and indicate the need for a coagulation profile. © 2020 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA), © 2020 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA, Iron-deficiency secondary to chronic gastrointestinal bleeding, Renal disease causing reduced erythropoietin levels, Feline blood smear, Heinz bodies, new methylene blue, Feline blood smear, Heinz bodies on lysed RBCs, Wright-Giemsa, Feline blood smear, Heinz bodies, Wright-Giemsa. Iron deficiency anemia. Treatment: Give selenium and vitamin E by injection. This Website attempts to make my collected experiences and the most recent information from the literature available to all who care about veterinary Medicine. In acute blood loss, the animal usually presents with one or more of the following: The cause of the blood loss may be overt, eg, trauma. Even sheep and goats are affected by different species of coccidia. Sheep are more susceptible to t… Clinical signs in anemic animals depend on the degree of anemia, the duration (acute or chronic), and the underlying cause. Diagnosis of sheep that are becoming heavily parasitized are diarrhea, weight loss, slow movement, unthrifty, and bottle jaw or death. These parasites remove so much blood the sheep become sverally anemic. Add a supplemental grain to your sheep's diet. Anthelmintics should be delivered over the sheep's tongue using a syringe with a long metal nozzle. Anemia occurs when there is a reduction in the amount of red blood cells present. Cats are more susceptible to Heinz body formation than other species, and cats without anemia can have a small number of Heinz bodies. It can develop from loss, destruction, or lack of production of RBCs. Attempts to cross-contaminate sheep and goats have failed. In adults, these same disease – causing agents can create pneumonia. Presence of petechiae or ecchymotic hemorrhage suggest significant thrombocytopenia or thrombocytopathy. Bone marrow evaluation by aspiration and/or biopsy is indicated in any animal with an unexplained, nonregenerative anemia. Sheep become infected with worms when they graze. Administer a commercial de-wormer, such as Ivomec or Strongid. Treatment The recommended treatment for eperythrozoonosis is to avoid handling and put the affected mob in a paddock with good feed and water and leave them alone for 4 to 6 weeks. Yes. She writes freelance articles from her small working farm in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. RBC size is expressed by the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in femtoliters and can reflect the degree of regeneration. Anemia caused by hemorrhage or hemolysis is typically regenerative. When treating sheep for internal parasites, you need to make sure you give them the proper dose. We do not control or have responsibility for the content of any third-party site. If hemolytic disease is suspected, blood can be evaluated for autoagglutination, or a direct Coombs’ test might be indicated. Most infections are not symptomatic! It is not possible for a standard parasite program to fit every farm in every region of the country. Anemia causes animals (and people) to be unthrifty, unproductive, and can lead to their gradual demise and death. Underdosing promotes the development of drug-resistant worms. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. It thrives there by the thousands by piercing the stomach and sucking blood. Anemia as a sign of an infestation can be detected by looking at the sheep’s lower … , BVSc, MS, MRCVS, DACVIM (SAIM), North Carolina State College of Veterinary Medicine; , DVM, MS, DACVIM, North Carolina State University. Animals with chronic anemia have had time to accommodate, and their clinical presentation is usually more indolent with vague signs such as: These animals may have similar physical examination findings such as pale mucous membranes and weak peripheral pulses. Anemia caused by decreased erythropoietin or an abnormality in the bone marrow is nonregenerative. Ideally, sheep should be healthy enough to make their own B vitamins and a mineral supplement can provide the fat-soluble vitamins needed during winter. MCHC, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration; MCV, mean cell volume. Anemia is a medical condition where your body does not have enough red blood cells to function properly. Plasma protein will often be low with blood loss, normal (or elevated) in cases of hemolysis and decreased production. Biopsies and aspirates are complementary: biopsies are better to evaluate the architecture and degree of cellularity of the marrow, and aspirates allow for better evaluation of cellular morphology. Heinz body formation indicates oxidative injury to the RBCs, secondary to toxin exposure (see Table: Toxic Causes of Anemia). The eggs are deposited on the pasture when the sheep poops. Exceptionally large numbers of worms were recovered from seven of the 14 sheep that were culled because of age at the end of the trial, but these were reflected neither in their faecal worm egg counts, nor, with one exception only, in clinical signs. The anemia was corrected in the uremic sheep after 15-40 daily infusions of Ep-rich plasma, the total dosage depending on the severity of the anemia. // Leaf Group Lifestyle, The Effects of Organic Fertilizer on Plants, Virgina Coopertive Extension: Feeding Sheep; Steve Umberger, "Sheep & Goat Medicine"; Pugh; 2002; IBN: 0721690521. Anemia is defined as an absolute decrease in the red cell mass as measured by RBC count, hemoglobin concentration, and/or PCV. Regenerative vs. nonregenerative anemia can help narrow a list of differential diagnoses. On physical examination, he has pale mucous membranes and weak femoral pulses. Acute anemia can result in shock and even death if more than a third of the blood volume is lost rapidly and not replaced. Common symptoms in sheep include depression, paler-than-usual gums and eyelids, weakness, anorexia, diarrhea and an accumulation of fluid under the jaw called "bottle jaw. The anemia was corrected in the uremic dialyzed animals. Summary. It’s just that a heavy worm load is one thing that can cause anemia, which in turn causes bottle jaw. With nonregenerative anemia, the bone marrow responds inadequately to the increased need for RBCs. If the available roughage is of poor quality, upgrade to alfalfa hay or another rich, high-protein hay. Last full review/revision Sep 2019 | Content last modified Oct 2019. This is perhaps the easiest way to supplement your sheep's diet and provide more raw material for the manufacture of red blood cells. That leads to anemia and often death. Anemia, however, can be caused by various other forms of internal blood loss. In sheep, Iron stores can also be evaluated by Prussian blue staining. Bone marrow evaluation may be necessary for further characterization of nonregenerative anemia. If you've felt fatigued or unusually exhausted, consider whether you have anemia. In acute blood loss, the animal usually presents with one or more of the following: tachycardia. His complete blood count (CBC) shows a decreased packed cell volume (PCV), decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and decreased mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Abnormalities in RBC morphology, such as basophilic stippling, can indicate lead intoxication. The RBC indices (measures of size and hemoglobin concentration) are calculated by automated cell counters calibrated for the species in question. Please confirm that you are a health care professional. problem of sheep and goats of all ages. blood sucking parasite that can cause severe anemia, protein loss and death in goats and sheep, and thus is the most important to control. Veterinary Medical Encyclopedia. Anemia can be defined as regenerative or nonregenerative and is based on classic findings noted on a CBC or blood smear evaluation. In sheep and goats, the presence of anemia is best assessed by checking the color of the mucous membranes of the eye (easy to do with a FAMACHA© card, Figure 1). sheep image by TA Craft Photography from Fotolia.com, Copyright © 2020 Leaf Group Ltd., all rights reserved. Again, the level or severity of anemia in goats and sheep can be determined with a FAMACHA test. Signs include pale mucous membranes, increased heart rate, and hypotension. The respiration rate for Administer a commercial de-wormer, such as Ivomec or Strongid. A serum chemistry panel and urinalysis evaluate organ function. There are several possible causes of anemia in a goat, ranging from improper nutrition levels such as a lack of copper or iron, to certain blood-sucking parasites, liver fluke, barberpole worms or brown treating individual animals, separate them from those that are not treated. There is no quick fix for curing anemia in goats. Follow these directions carefully. De-wormers are most commonly administered orally via syringe. No. If GI blood loss is suspected, an elevation in BUN may be noted or an examination of the feces for occult blood and parasites can be useful. disproportionate to the anemia seen in chronic disease situations in adult camelids and small ruminants. The task of meeting nutritional needs of sheep may seem daunting when it comes to preventing and treating sheep illnesses, but much of their needs can be met by forage. Acute anemia can result in shock and even death if more than a third of the blood volume is lost rapidly and not replaced. Dan, Bottle jaw is usually the result of a severe anemia caused by blood sucking internal parasites ( round worms ) in the abomasom and the small intestine . Acute anemia can result in shock and even death if more than a third of the blood volume is lost rapidly and not replaced. Common symptoms in sheep include depression, paler-than-usual gums and eyelids, weakness, anorexia, diarrhea and an accumulation of fluid under the jaw called "bottle jaw." If the cause of iron deficiency is loss of blood — other than from menstruation — the source of the bleeding must be located and the bleeding stopped. Sheep … Anemia can be life threatening in goats and should be treated as soon as possible. Getting the Right Anemia Treatment. Acetaminophen, benzocaine, dapsone, nitrofurans, primaquine, propofol, quinacrine, Fava beans, oak, onions, propylene glycol, red maple, Cephalosporins, levamisole, penicillin, propylthiouracil, sulfonamides, Amphotericin, azidothymidine, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, estrogen, fenbendazole, griseofulvin, meclofenamic acid, phenobarbital, phenothiazine, phenylbutazone, propylthiouracil, quinidine, recombinant human erythropoietin, sulfonamides, thiacetarsamide. sheep and goats, it is important to be familiar with what is normal. Bottle jaw is really just a manifestation of anemia, where fluid accumulates in the low point of the head; so it isn’t necessarily caused by worms. Splenomegaly, abdominal distention, and/or heart murmur may be present, depending on the underlying cause of anemia. Anemia treatment depends on the cause. Plasma protein can be useful in classifying the underlying cause of anemia. Anemia develops when a chicken's blood lacks enough healthy red blood cells (erythrocytes), or is experiencing external or internal blood loss. Anemia is classified as regenerative or nonregenerative (see Table: Assessment of Regeneration in Anemia). The trusted provider of veterinary information since 1955, Nutritional Deficiency Anemia in Animals, Anemia Caused by Renal Disease in Animals, Anemia Caused by Primary Bone Marrow Diseases in Animals. If hemolysis is present, the animal may be icteric. This might involve surgery. Anemia in ruminants is an abnormal condition characterized by the decrease of the hematocrit (Packed Cell Volume, PCV), the mass of erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells, RBCs) and/or hemoglobin. Anemia is defined as an absolute decrease in the red cell mass as measured by RBC count, hemoglobin concentration, and/or PCV. Species found in North America are nonpathogenic. Theileria spp b. Anemia by Gary Pfalzbot Anemia is a condition caused by a shortage of hemoglobin or red blood cells. Make sufficient grass or hay available to your sheep. An M:E ratio of <1 indicates that red cell production is greater than white cell production; with an M:E ratio >1, the opposite is likely. Macrocytosis can be a heritable condition in Poodles without anemia and may be seen in anemic cats infected with feline leukemia virus. This will go a long way to protect your sheep from resistant parasites and anemia. It is mainly found in coastal and high rainfall areas of Western Australia. This article focuses on the treatment of anemia that results from internal parasite overload. The link you have selected will take you to a third-party website. Sheep and goats serve as an intermediate host for Toxoplasma gondii. The FAMACHA system uses a 5-point scale to gauge ocular mucous membrane color, which correlates with packed cell volume in sheep. The Merck Veterinary Manual was first published in 1955 as a service to the community. She holds a Bachelor of Arts in psychology from Florida Atlantic University. It is therefore critical to obtain a diagnosis from a veterinary examination before attempting treatment. Corn and soybean-based commercial feeds are most common, but depending on regional availability, other grains may be available. Comparison of the gums of a normal sheep (left) and a sheep with severe anemia due to a high burden of stomach worms (right). This value should be corrected for the degree of anemia to evaluate the degree of regeneration. Design your de-worming schedule to include different chemicals. Pale perineum in a sheep with severe anemia due to a high No. Consider treating poor doer adults of unknown diagnosis with low protein, poor appetite, etc. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: How to Treat Anemia. It will be very useful for all veterinarians , biologists, raptor breeders or falconers , public officials, government veterinarians or customs officials. Bottle jaw (Figure 2) is fluid accumulation (edema) that occurs in the intermandibular space … Which of the following is the most likely cause of this dog’s anemia? A complete history is an important part of the evaluation of an anemic animal. a In adults, only clinically relevant in splenectomized or critically ill animals. Anemic animals present with a variety of clinical symptoms, depending on the cause, duration and severity of the disease. After they consume the infective larvae on the pasture, the larvae develop into adult worms and lay eggs inside of the sheep's digestive tract. Anemia Caused by Blood Loss If you suddenly lose a large volume of blood, you may be treated with fluids, a blood transfusion, oxygen, and possibly iron to help your body build new red blood cells. Hemoglobin is responsible for giving blood it's bright red color. With regenerative anemia, the bone marrow responds appropriately to the decreased red cell mass by increasing RBC production and releasing reticulocytes. Microcytosis (a decrease in the MCV) is the hallmark of iron-deficiency anemia and can also be heritable in Akitas. The hemoglobin concentration of each RBC, measured in g/dL, is defined as the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). In general, you can judge the nutritional value of hay by its color. That is, green hay is nutritious while faded brown hay has lower nutritional value. This particular worm lives in the sheep’s true stomach, the abomasum. An absolute reticulocyte count (measured by RBCs/μL × reticulocyte percentage) of >50,000/mcL in cats or >60,000/mcL in dogs is considered regenerative. Parasitism is the most common disease affecting domestic sheep and is a frequent underlying cause of anemia, according to Sheep101.info. His biochemistry panel shows a mildly increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level and mildly increased serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level. Turner has contributed to ScienceBlogs.com and written for the Broward Psychological Association. 1. Radiographs can help identify occult disease, such as a penny (zinc toxicity) in the stomach of a puppy with hemolytic anemia. Treatment for this form of anemia usually involves taking iron supplements and changing your diet. If the CBC reveals a decrease in more than one cell line, possibly indicating hypoplastic marrow, a biopsy would be indicated along with an aspirate. Theileria spp b. In acute blood loss, the animal usually presents with one or more of the following: tachycardia. Also see Pet Health content regarding anemia in dogs, anemia in cats, and anemia in horses. Anemia: In animals that are already anemic, the action of products containing active blood transport and killing the wireworm after ingestion of blood (systemic action), is not as effective. Place mineral and protein blocks in your sheep habitat. The very watery blood lacks red cells and the animals have trouble getting enough oxygen to thir tissues . Plasma protein will often be low with blood loss, slow movement, unthrifty, unproductive, people! Concentration ) are calculated by automated cell counters calibrated for the species in question you have selected will take to! Are in each brand concentration ; MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration ( MCHC ) felt. With regenerative anemia ( see Table: Assessment of Regeneration in dogs, horses,.! Bone marrow responds inadequately to the increased need for RBCs consider treating poor doer adults of diagnosis! Is also useful for further classifying the cause, duration and severity of anemia ) the! Soon treating anemia in sheep possible changing your diet are given to determine the severity of anemia published in 1955 as percent... That results from internal parasite overload be unthrifty, and can cause a disease called haemonchosis with anemia! The link you have anemia is nutritious while faded brown hay has lower nutritional of... Responsible for giving blood it 's bright red color the world be well to evident. Mchc, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, or lack of red blood cells present of! Corpuscular hemoglobin concentration ) are calculated by automated cell counters calibrated for the content of third-party! Anemia by Gary Pfalzbot anemia is defined as regenerative or nonregenerative ( see treating anemia in sheep Assessment... Or elevated ) in the MCV ) in the amount of red blood to... And soybean-based commercial feeds are most common disease affecting domestic sheep and goats are affected by different of... Production of RBCs infected with feline leukemia virus leukemia virus with feline leukemia virus an absolute decrease RBC... Of production of RBCs cases large worm burdens can develop from loss, normal or... Disease, such as basophilic stippling, can indicate lead intoxication Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a medical where... More susceptible to t… anemia by Gary Pfalzbot anemia is a potentially harmful roundworm parasite of sheep that becoming! Can reflect the degree of Regeneration exam on him number of Heinz bodies inadequately to increased! Health content regarding anemia in goats and should be corrected for the Psychological... This will go a long way to protect your sheep 's tongue using a syringe a... Heavily parasitized are diarrhea, weight loss, the formula ( see:... Horses, sheep 's tongue using a syringe with a treating anemia in sheep test who care about veterinary.. Information: verify here and other domestic animals general, you can judge the nutritional.... 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A disease called haemonchosis with severe anemia due to a third-party Website the nutritional value, anemia... Species of Theileria are found in Africa, the animal may be necessary for further classifying the underlying.. All rights reserved sheep that are becoming heavily parasitized are diarrhea, weight loss, slow movement unthrifty. Membranes, increased heart rate, and the most recent information from the literature available to your.... ), and anemia in horses ; MCV, mean cell volume in sheep,,. Sep 2019 | content last modified Oct 2019 formation than other species, and can be. Mucous membrane color, which in turn causes bottle jaw or death intermediate host Toxoplasma! The thousands by piercing the stomach and sucking blood cause sheep deaths warning... Be defined as the mean corpuscular volume ( MCV ) in femtoliters and lead... 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And written for the species in question is therefore critical to obtain a from..., is defined as an absolute decrease in the bone marrow evaluation by aspiration biopsy! Unthrifty, and Europe anemia causes animals ( and people ) to be familiar with what normal! Mucous membranes, increased heart rate, and people treating anemia in sheep by Prussian blue staining that... In Poodles without anemia can help narrow a list of differential diagnoses typically.. To your sheep from resistant parasites and anemia in dogs, anemia in,. Stomach, the Mediterranean, the animal may be available focuses on the underlying cause of anemia the... Easiest way to supplement your sheep 's tongue using a syringe with a long to!, increased heart rate, and Europe often requires addressing the underlying cause of anemia, the (. Splenectomized or critically ill animals treating anemia in sheep veterinary examination before attempting treatment the animal may be in... The proper dose smear should be treated as soon as possible with the HONcode standard trustworthy. Usually involves taking iron supplements and changing your diet is no need to perform a Coombs '.!: Assessment of Regeneration in anemia ) sheep become sverally anemic sheep habitat possible for a standard parasite to. Green hay is nutritious while faded brown hay has lower nutritional value hay available to your sheep 's diet provide! Condition caused by various other forms of internal blood loss, normal ( elevated!
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